Annotated Bibliography

Bitzer, Donald. “Use of CBE for the Handicapped.” American Annals of the Deaf, Gallaudet University Press, 1979.

This chapter’s purpose is to illustrate the role and activities regarding using PLATO with those with disabilities. Donald Bitzer is an electrical engineer famous for pioneering and steering the direction of PLATO as a computer- assisted instruction system. The audience is other large entities looking to implement technological advances such as PLATO to educate students with disabilities.

Bankhead, Tekita, Otchere, Kimberly, and Williams, Ayanna. “Housing Is An Epicenter For Change: A Narrative of Students and Staff Championing Campus Social Change Movements.” Journal of College & University Student Housing. Vol. 43, Issue 3, 2017, p 80-91.

Through this article, Bankhead, Otchere, and Williams demonstrate the work of student activists and University housing to co-create positive social change for students of color. In doing so, they portray the University as a benevolent and supportive system for student activists and their need for change, especially come from their positions as staff leadership within the cultural and social justice spaces at the University.

Bragg, Debra, Durham, Brian, and McCambly, Heather. “Catching the Spark: Student Activism and Student Data as a Catalyst for Systemic Transformation.” Change, Vol. 48, Issue 3, 2016, p36-47.

As the faculty and administrators behind the Pathways to Results program, the authors are clearly trying to emphasize the program’s success and impact in achieving its goals of systemic transformation of the University of Illinois. The want the University of Illinois’ program to be a testament to their effectiveness as empathetic leaders as well as to teach other universities how they leveraged data in order to improve the experiences of people of color.

Brown, Steven E. “Breaking Barriers: The Pioneering Disability Students Services Program at the University of Illinois: 1948-1960.” Palgrave Macmillan, 2008.

Author Steven E. Brown demonstrates and explains the disability programs of the University that have made the University of Illinois one of the initial universities that was largely accessible for those with disabilities. The text is definitely lengthy and intended for academics to cite for their scholarly works. While this chapter is only one that focuses on the University of Illinois, other chapters likely did not focus on the U of I and instead focus on other topics.

Commemorative Book Preparation and Publication Committee. “Expanding Horizons: A History of the First 50 Years of the Division of Rehabilitation-Education Services at the University of Illinois.” Roxford DT Pub., 1998.

This source covers the history and milestones of the first 50 years of the influential Division of Rehabilitation-Education Services (DRES) at the University of Illinois. Its intended audience is likely the University’s academics, DRES community, and the public, because its lighthearted language and wide usage of photos would be generally appealing and digestible for wide audiences. There is bias in this piece as it was put out by DRES itself and likely wanted to portray everything the University did as fair and favorable toward the disability community.

Evans, Sara M. “Sons, Daughters, and Patriarchy: Gender and the 1968 Generation.” American Historical Review, 2009.

Evans highlights the history of the gender movement in regards to the patriarchy as a dichotomy between men and women, especially as it related to and was seen in 1968. Her audience is likely academic as it includes extensive citations and footnotes. Her work is unique in that it focuses predominantly on gender in terms of the 1968 generation, rather than other social movements, and in its international sense.

Geiger, Roger. “The History of American Higher Education.” Princeton University Press, 2015.

Through his book, the author Roger Geiger attempts to summarize a wide array of history involving American higher education, including the effects and interpretations of the Morrill Land Grant of 1862. His extensive documentation and survey of the landscape is definitely fit for a scholar necessitating adequate citations, and this comes across in his verbose tone and comprehensive descriptions. All in all, he seeks to demonstrate how the Morrill Land Grant meant a wide range of things for private to public to midwestern to eastern universities, but nonetheless, it pushed forward the popularity of education in the United States, even if that meant succumbing to external pressures and not quite meeting its mark of an education for the masses.

Harrison, Chase. “Program on Survey Research.” Harvard University Press, 2007.

In this document, Harrison intends to outline best practice and advice for research survey design. The author is the Associate Director of the Harvard Program on Survey Research, which is an interdisciplinary scientific program that facilitates research and instruction in the theory and practice of survey research. This document is intended to be introductory to survey design and accessible for non-academics to enter survey design.

Henry, David, and Springer, William. “University of Illinois Centennial.” Congressional Record, 1968.

In a speech he delivered as the President of the University of Illinois, David Henry outlines the immense scholastic and societal achievement of the university and other land-grant universities as well as its students over the past century since its founding. From there, he thanks the innovations of his predecessors while looking toward the future, emphasizing the ongoing importance of a university education, and pushing toward growth of the University in order for it to sustain these goals and promises of career preparation and democracy for Illinois and the rest of the country.

“Heinz von Foerster and the Biological Computer Laboratory: A Cybernetics Odyssey.” Exhibits, University of Illinois Archives, 6 December 2016.

The purpose of this archives blog post is to describe and give a brief overview of Heinz Foerster and the Biological Computer Laboratory. The author, Bethany Anderson, is a blogger for the archives at the University of Illinois. The blog post is intended to be accessible and interesting to students and the general public curious about the BCL.

Hutchinson, Jamie. “Heinz Von Foerster and the Biological Computer Laboratory.” “Nerve Center” of the Cybernetic World.

The purpose of this webpage is to showcase the history of Heinz and the Biological Computer Laboratory in a technically robust format. The author, Jamie Hutchinson, is an editor within the Grainger College of Engineering’s Electrical and Computer Engineering department. The webpage is likely intended to be referenced or accessed by electrical engineering and technical students and academics seeking a brief overview of the BCL and cybernetics.

Hoxie, Frederick E., and Hughes, Michael. “Nevada Street: A Center for the Study of Race and Ethnicity.” University of Illinois Press, 2017.

As Hoxie and Hughes highlight in their short article, the cultural houses on Nevada Street are living evidence of the dedication since the 1960s of student activists and faculty on the University of Illinois campus to have safe spaces and support for students of varying ethnic backgrounds. While the authors conclude that the creation of these cultural houses and their resultant programs are testimony to the power of activism and protests, there should be more research and metrics about the success and popularity of these programs in order to successfully justify if the original demands of student activists have been met.

Lamont, Valerie. “New Directions for the teaching Computer: Citizen Participation in Community Planning.” Computer-based Education Research Laboratory, 1973.

The purpose of the document is to describe the author’s experience using PLATO for community planning, and in the process of doing so, highlighting PLATO’s viability as a community planning tool. Valerie Lamont was the researcher carrying out the experiment, who was one of the early students and adopters of PLATO. The audience is researchers and technologists interested in civic organizing methods.

Metz, Michael. “Radicals in the Heartland: The 1960s Student Protest Movement at the University of Illinois.” University of Illinois Press, 2019.

This source discusses the student protest and activism movements the University of Illinois during the 1960s. Michael Metz was a UIUC student during that time period, and thus, his perspective and recanting likely has influences from having lived through it as a student. His audience is likely other U of I alumni who also lived through that time period as well as academics and non-academics who are simply curious about the history of student activism at the University.

OECD, “Good Practices in Survey Design Step-by-Step.” Measuring Regulatory Performance: A Practitioner’s Guide to perception Surveys, OECD Publishing, Paris, 2012.

The purpose of this document is to provide a deep-dive into the art of research survey design. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is an intergovernmental economic organization founded to stimulate economic progress and world trade. The audience is researchers and academics seeking to surveys calibrated to an internationally accepted standard.

Prutzer, Ned. “The Biological Computer Laboratory.” The Biological Computer Laboratory, 20 Jan 2019.

The purpose of this website is to reveal the story of the Biological Computer Laboratory through a story-like manner in order to appeal to wider and more diverse audiences interested in research, such as undergraduate students. The author is a PhD student in Communications and Media at the University of Illinois.

Reagan, Leslie J. “Timothy Nugent: ‘Wheelchair Students’ and the Creation of the Most Accessible Campus in the World.” University of Illinois Press, 2017.

This source provides an overview of the initial years of DRES and Timothy Nugent’s influential effects on the University and its disability community in making large progress toward wide-spread accessibility. At the same time, this piece likely shows bias in favor of Tim Nugent as he is largely revered by the University nowadays and this piece was printed by the University of Illinois press. Regardless, the author justifies his rationale and is able to showcase that some of Nugent’s work was met with initial criticism by those with disabilities too.

“Remembering the Future.” PLATO History, PLATO History Foundation, 2010.

The purpose of this blog is to highlight anecdotes from PLATO’s history and creation. The main author, Brian Dear, is a longtime tech entrepreneur and founder that has previously worked worked in computer-baed education including with the PLATO system. His tone is more casual and approachable, especially with the blog-based format of the sitee.

Schroeder, Paul. “Why?” The Daily Illini, 15 Mar 1968.

Paul Schroeder is a self-proclaimed disappointed student who has spent his last four years at the University of Illinois and had been chosen to deliver a speech at the Centennial Convocation. He feels that the University has failed him and his fellow students, because the education does not meet the demands of the students to push critical modern thought and support retrospection and its outlined changes. Schroeder’s call to action is one to his fellow students as well as university faculty and administrators: join together and rebuild education so that it can prepare the next generation of leaders.

Williamson, Joy Ann. “Black Power on Campus: The University of Illinois, 1965-75.” University of Illinois Press, 2017.

Through this chapter in a scholarly book, Williamson explains the history of the Special Educational Opportunities Program (SEOP), which was the University of Illinois’ proposed solution to take affirmative action in order to recruit more disadvantaged students, especially Blacks. The author highlights issues with recruitment, acceptance, and retention of these students — showcasing how it was multi-faceted challenge that required the help and acceptance of many departments and staff within the University.

Williamson, Joy Ann. “The Campaign to Diversify the University.” University of Illinois Press, 2017.

Through this look into the history of Black students at the University of Illinois, the author explains the history of Black students and student life since the early 1900s through the 1970s, while also highlighting a few modern events as well. The author does this in order to explain how Black students specifically in the 1960s and 1970s demanded changes and how that ultimately resulted in policies and initiatives that have benefited Black students and faculty since. At the same time, the author highlights certain opposition and vitriol that these groups faced in gaining acceptance.

Yang, Andrew. The War on Normal People: The Truth About America’s Disappearing Jobs. Hachette Books, 2018.

Throughout his book, Andrew Yang highlights the role of automation on the disappearance of jobs and the need for Americans to adapt to this. Andrew Yang is known for being a candidate in the 2020 Democratic presidential primaries and for being an executive at a test prep company as well as Venture for America, a program that gives two-year fellowships for those seeking a start-up experience. This book became the basis for his Democratic campaign and the agenda he ran on, which highlighted the need for Americans to adapt to automation, and thus, it can be said that it may be less rigorous in statistics but strong in convincing rhetoric for the general public — though likely well-educated — that may be reading it.

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