Annotated Bibliography

“Congressional Record: University of Illinois Centennial” Committee on the Centennial,
University of Illinois, 15 October 2009, pp. 73-76.

The main idea behind this record in my opinion was to put light on the International impact that
the University of Illinois has made in front of the Illinois representatives. The intended audience
is for the Illinois House of Representatives. The purpose of the text is to bring a change in policy
and legislation. The author has been a house representative himself, thus providing credibility to
his text. Henry talks about the immense scholastic and societal achievement of the university,
he also talks about the great impact the students and alum have made throughout the globe.

Geiger, Roger. The History of American Higher Education: Learning and Culture from the Founding to World War II.Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2015.

This study is intended to enlarge and extend appreciation of that history from the beginnings of
colonial colleges to the eve of World War II. Specifically, it seeks to explain how institutions of
higher education changed over time in response to their contemporary contexts. The intended
audience are scholars and postgraduate researchers majoring in education in my opinion.
Geiger is a Professor of Education at the Pennsylvania State University. He has done extensive
research in the field and is also a professor.

Schroeder, Paul. “Why?” The Daily Illini, 15 March 1968.

The main idea behind the article is to begin a movement to bring out modernised education at
the University of Illinois. Through his speech Schroeder tries to encourage his fellow students to
build new education for the future. Paul Schroeder is a representative of the Education Reform
Committee and a student at the University of Illinois. He believes that the university is not doing
enough to bring modern ways of teaching and the syllabus is not appropriate. The intended
audience for this speech is students, faculty, and administration of the University of Illinois.

Leslie J. Reagan, “Timothy Nugent: ‘Wheelchair Students’ and the Creation of the Most Accessible Campus in the World,” in The University of Illinois: Engine of Innovation, edited by Frederick E. Hoxie.

The main idea of this article is to talk about the creation, and the struggles and barriers towards
DRES and the disabled population at the University. The vision and dedication of one man, Tim
Nugent—together with the persistence of the university’s disabled students in making DRES a
reality. In 1948 admitting people with disabilities, specifically “wheelchair students,” to the state’s
flagship university and treating them like any other student on campus seemed strange
and questionable. However, with the struggles of Tim Nugent, and the student population this
dream was soon realised.

Steven E. Brown, “Breaking Barriers: The Pioneering Disability Students Services Program at
the University of Illinois: 1948-1960,” in The History of Discrimination in US Education, edited by
Eileen H. Tamura (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008)

The article is mainly about how the barriers mentioned in the above text were broken by Tim
Nugent, how DRES played a role in doing so, and how they went about making disabled
students accepted physically and culturally on campus. Those with disabilities were cast aside,
like criminals, away from public view. In 1948 a determined young man named Tim Nugent
intended to overturn such thinking. From 1948 to 1960, he shepherded a program that
succeeded in shatter-ing long standing, pervasive institutional, physical, economic,
psycholog-ical, and other barriers that marginalized and ostracized people with disabilities. As
the first director of the University of Illinois DisabilityResources and Educational Services
(DRES) program, Nugent did everything in his power to ensure its survival. He battled
prevalent nega-tive social attitudes, university bureaucracy, and an inaccessible environ-ment.
He cajoled, badgered, and encouraged many students who were unprepared for postsecondary

Commemorative Book Preparation and Publication Committee. Expanding Horizons: A History of the First 50 Years of the Division of Rehabilitation-Education Services at the University of Illinois. Roxford DT Pub., 1998.

This excerpt is mainly about how DRES was established and how it came to be. It talks about the father and creator of DRES, the challenges both social and economic that DRES had to encounter in its initial years. It also talks about the role that DRES played in the lives of disabled population at the university.

Chapter 3: Joy Ann Williamson-Lott, Black Power on Campus: The University of Illinois, 1965-75. Champaign: University of Illinois Press, 2013

The author talks about the problems and issues relating to recruitment, acceptance of the black population, and retaining students — the article puts spotlight onto the various dynamics of the challenges that required the help and acceptance of many University scholastic departments and staff.

Pages 77 – 84: Joy Ann Williamson-Lott, “Clarence Shelley: The Campaign to Diversify the University” in The University of Illinois: Engine of Innovation, edited by Frederick E. Hoxie

The article talks about the history of black students at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, it talks about how the history is a complicated one that involves discrimination, racism, protest, and resilience. Because the African American community maintained an unwavering belief in the importance of education, It shows how the university have initiated the various movements for liberation.

Pages 219 – 223: Frederick E. Hoxie and Michael Hughes, “Nevada Street: A Center for the Study of Race and Ethnicity,” in The University of Illinois: Engine of Innovation, edited by Frederick E. Hoxie

The cultural houses on Nevada Street showcase the dedication for diversification and equality. They are grounds for student activists and faculty on the University of Illinois campus to have safe spaces and support for students of varying ethnic backgrounds.  The audience intended for this work would be students, and professors.

Metz, Michael. “Radicals in the Heartland: The 1960s Student Protest Movement at the University of Illinois.” University of Illinois Press, 2019.

            The main idea behind this excerpt was to discuss and inform the readers about the student protests that were occurring at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. There were discussions about how freedom of speech came to be at the university how during the 1960s it was a huge problem. Metz talks about how – “We are all free in all respects save one; We are not free to tolerate the destruction of our freedom” His perspective as a student at the university provides first-hand experience of the protests. The intended audience are students because it is a more informative article and strongly talks about his beliefs.

Evans, Sara M. “Sons, Daughters, and Patriarchy: Gender and the 1968 Generation.” American Historical Review, 2009.

The main idea behind this excerpt is to inform the readers about how feminism came to be during the 1960s. It talks in detail about how women were treated and how lack of woman leadership led to the unjust treatment of women and the dire need for principles and ideals of feminism. Sara M. Evans is a professor of history at the University of Minnesota. Since she has a lot of experience and has studied and researched in detail about this topic it makes her a credible source. The intended audience for this article is anyone interested the history of feminism especially young female readers.

Yang, Andrew. The War on Normal People: The Truth About America’s Disappearing Jobs. Hachette Books, 2018.

The main idea behind this book is to talk about what the Normal American looks like, delves deep into jobs and topics including technological change, automation, job displacement, the U.S. economy, and what Yang describes as the need for a UBI. The people of the United sates in my opinion are the main audience of this book. This book talks about a lot of topics that are central to Yang’s 2020 presidential campaign. Yang discusses job displacement and the shrinking of local economies, terming it the “Great Displacement”, which has been “the product of financialization, globalization, and technologization”. He talks about topics like how automation will displace many jobs, etc.

Prutzer, Ned. “The BCL and the Cybernetics Moment.” The Biological Computer Laboratory, 20 Jan. 2019,

This is a information website on the Biological Computer Lab. It consists of various intriguing artifacts and snippets of information about the BCL. Ned Prutzer is the creator of this website a PHD student who made it as research. I believe the intended audience are Students and Professors alike.

Hutchinson, Jamie. “Heinz Von Foerster and the Biological Computer Laboratory.” “Nerve Center” of the Cybernetic World,

The website is an old fashioned HTML website that talks in detail about how the BCL came to be, it talks about several features of the BCL. It also delves into detail about cybernetics and sheds light upon Heinz Von Foster, talks about his contributions in the field of cybernetics and BCL. The intended audience for this website are students and faculty interested in the history of Bly Manor.

Anderson, Bethany. “Heinz von Foerster and the Biological Computer Laboratory: A Cybernetics Odyssey.” Exhibits, University of Illinois Archives, 6 December 2016,

The main idea behind this website is to act as a culmination of information on Heinz Von Foster, BCL and the practice of Cybernetics. The intended audience for this blog are students, faculty members and anyone who is interested in learning about these topics.

Dear, Brian. “Remembering the Future.” PLATO History, PLATO History Foundation, 2010,

The website is the home of the PLATO History Foundation and the archive for information about the history and significance of the PLATO computer system and its online community.The Foundation’s principal focus is to advance the public awareness of the history, significance, and importance of the PLATO computer system and its online community, and to tell the story of the people who designed, built, and used the system.

Don Bitzer, “Use of CBE for the Handicapped,” American Annals of the Deaf 124.5 (1979)

The main idea of the excerpt from the book “Use of CBE for the Handicapped” by Don Bitzer is to talk about how computer network systems in education like the PLATO have aided in education for the Handicapped. It talks about how handicapped students can use PLATO features like narration for aiding in learning. The main audience for this book are educators and researchers in my opinion.

Lamont, Valerie. “New Directions for the teaching Computer: Citizen Participation in Community Planning.” Computer-based Education Research Laboratory, 1973.

The main idea behind this article is talk about how computer network systems like the PLATO can be used with helping and working on Community Planning. It talks about how using these systems the whole process becomes much less tedious and time consuming. The main audience in my opinion are the administrators that fun these community planning projects, researchers as well as students who are interested in the field.

Weber, Larry. “Blind Student Power.” Technograph, 1968.

The main idea behind this excerpt is to talk about how PLATO helped learning for blind students at the university. It talks in detail about the hardware, and how the system functions to help blind students study using PLATO. The hardware used in the conventional PLATO system consists of a keyset which the student uses to “talk” to the computer and a display screen which the computer uses to “talk” to the student. The main audience of this excerpt are students interested in learning about PLATO, also blind students informing them about the innovation of such features in the computer system.

Harvard U Program on Survey Research: Tip Sheet on Question Wording

This article is a guide to write proper research surveys, it consists of techniques and tips to write professional surveys. It has been accredited by Harvard University hence I believe it is a credible guide to write surveys. It consists of explanatory examples to better understand how surveys should be written. It also consists of a bibliography of all the sources which can be considered while making our own survey.

OECD (2012), “Good Practices in Survey Design Step-by-Step”, in Measuring Regulatory Performance: A Practitioner’s Guide to Perception Surveys, OECD Publishing, Paris.

Good practice methodologies considerably improve the quality of results and help avoid pitfalls. This chapter explains good practice through sequential, step-by-step guidance that can be used to design a perception survey. It provides advice on how to define survey objectives and the target group, draft survey questions, pilot and re-adjust a questionnaire, select respondents and data collection methods, run the survey, and analyse the results. (Good Practices Abstract)

A Tour through the Visualization Zoo: Jeffrey Heer, Michael Bostock, and Vadim Ogievetsky, Stanford University

The reading puts forward various visualizations on different topics, it is meant to showcase the power and efficiency of visualizations. It talks about various techniques to spot patterns, identify intricate details and find outliers in a visualization. The intended audience are people interested in getting into the field of data analysis and visualization, as well as anyone interested in getting a basic intro into the field.

Design & Re-Design: Fernanda Viégas / Martin Wattenberg

The authors talk about the fact that visualizations are based on transforming raw data means that criticism can take forms that would be impossible for a movie or book. The goal of the article is to think through the issues involved in public visualization criticism, especially criticism based on direct redesigns. It begins with analyzing several details in existing visualizations and later on puts forth various techniques to make better and more detailed visualizations. It talks about how criticism is important and a building block for better re-design.

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