Goose

Week 09 – Lab Reflection + Reading Response

Part 1: Lab Reflection

1b.) Transcribe Interview

  1. “Yeah, I was contacted through Facebook and an ROTC booth was at my high school. Um, once I said that I was slightly interested in the program I got many emails from like the ROTC program from like the University of Illinois and their office.”
  2. “Okay, yeah, we train three days a week in the morning for an hour from 6 to 7am.”
  3. “I think it’s just kind of like a learning curve when you’re a freshman and you’re just like, it’s kind of a lot more responsibility than what you’re used to in high school, like within our fighting alumni battalion, our cadets, we kind of take leadership roles like squad leader, team leader, first sergeant, platoon sergeant, and all the way up to like battalion commander. And so as you progress in the program and progress, like in school, you’re getting more responsibility leadership responsibility in ROTC so it’s kind of part of the training where you just have to learn how to manage your time wisely.”

Part 2: Reading Response

a.) Example: An example of a critique was the absence of administration supervision of the students that were apart of the organization.

b.) One of the challenges Unit One faced during its lifetime was its funding. It was eliminated from the Illinois budget three times in 1978, 1979, and 1980. This happened because it was argued that it never reached the excellence it promised when implemented. Funding is important for sustaining a organization’s life.

c.) The evolution of Unit One/Allen Hall makes visible is the financial vulnerabilities that are present with the innovations. My first lab reflection discusses the financial vulnerabilities that are present. Sidewalks, streets, and other pathways need to be fixed or remodeled. The problem with this demand is the lack of funding that will fulfill the demand.

Peltason notes that “now is the time” because the author feels that the University of Illinois is the not the leading institution in providing instruction for underclassmen with a high faulty education system. He wants to help the students that are struggling at the University of Illinois. Academic advising, according to this document, is inadequate for the underclassmen. This puts a pressure on the underclassmen because the requirements needed for their major could be more confusing to the underclassmen. Another problem is the evaluation system that provides the students with the credited hours. Courses providing different methods and hours credits confusion and inefficiency. This creates more pressure for the student because there is a mix of confusion and stress when applying and taking courses at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

Week 08 – Lab Reflection + Reading Response

Part 1: Lab – Interview and Survey Design

1b.) Schedule Interview

I scheduled the interview on the 22nd of October with Annika.

1c.) Survey Quesitions

  1. I am able to successfully balance academic work with my requirements at the Reserve Officer Training Corps.
  2. Reserve Officer Training Corps has helped me to make better use of my time.
  3. Technology has been helpful in balancing my time with ROTC and school at the University of Illinois.
  4. My experience as an ROTC student at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign has made me a better person.
  5. I am able to maintain and create new friendships outside of the Reserve Officers Training Corps.
  6. COVID-19 has not disturbed my balance with ROTC and academics at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
  7. Social media platforms have developed my growth as a University of Illinois student.
  8. I have great connections with my ROTC students.

1d.) Survey Distribution Leads

  • Tyler Anderson – Primary Contact – NROTC Rifle-Pistol Team
  • Jack Marshall – President – Flying Illini Booster Club

Part 2: Reading Response

2a.) Reading Response

The three secondary sources include the “History of the United States Army School of Military Aeronautics,” “Summary of Replies to the Questions Sent to Illini in Service,” and “History of the Military Department.” In the “History of the United States Army School of Military Aeronautics,” the author is looking to answer the history behind the United States Army School of Military Aeronautics at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. He does this by establishing a timeline of important events in the history of the School of Military Aeronautics. “Summary of Replies to the Questions Sent to Illini in Service” tries to answer questions such as their expected return date to the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and their course of study when they intend to enroll. He collects this information because the data will help the University of Illinois receive feedback from the students. The “History of the Military Department” tries to answer the questions behind the creation of the Military Department at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The “History of the United States Army School of Military Aeronautics” answers this question by citing and quoting professors and members of the School of Military Aeronautics. The “Summary of Replies to the Questions Sent to Illini in Service” answers this question by collecting data from the answers to the questionnaires. They collect information from military members returning to the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign to complete their education. “History of the Military Department” attacks this question through surveys and quotes from professors from the Military Department. The survey received over 16,000 responses from military students returning or continuing their education at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. “History of the United States Army School of Military Aeronautics” builds its story around the Armory. This source discusses the impact of the Armory at the University of Illinois. The next source, “Summary of Replies to the Questions Sent to Illini in Service,” builds their story around the College of Medicine and Engineering and the Department of Aeronautical Engineering. The author emphasizes the influence of the Military Department on the Colleges with the University of Illinois. The final source, “History of the Military Department,” builds their story around the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Military Department. It collects data of students that participate in Military related services in each college such as the College of Agriculture and the College of Engineering. I plan to use these three sources to establish the history of the School of Military Aeronautics and the history of the Military Department at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. I will use the data from the “Summary of Replies to the Questions Sent to Illini in Service” to examine the lifestyle of military students at the University of Illinois.

Five Key Takeaways:

  1. Don’t reinvent the wheel and create your own measurement if someone else provides you a reliable way to measure the concept.
  2. Keep the questions short and simple
  3. Define the objects of the survey before you make it
  4. Avoid vague terms that could confuse the person taking the questionnaire
  5. Create a rating scale that helps to answer attitude questions

These are relevant to me because the students in ROTC and other military-related organizations are going to be busy. Creating complex questions will discourage them from completing the questionnaire or create confusion. People do not have time to think about confusing questions. I also over think simple concepts such as the measurements of the questionnaire. Avoiding the reinvention of the wheel will save me time.

Week 07 – Lab Reflection + Reading Response

Part 1: Lab – Ethical Research and Best Practices

1b.) Archives

This first source will help me in my research because it provides me with the relationship between the United States military and the University of Illinois. The source also establishes the history of the United States Army school.

The second source goes through the different replies given by 16,500 former University of Illinois students that were a part of the armed forces. The questionnaire focuses on the students’ plans after their return from the war and their recommendations.

The final source discusses the history of the military department at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The source also talks about the history of the ROTC and other branches of the military that are at the University of Illinois.

1c.) Interview Questions

  1. What is a day like as an ROTC student balancing other responsibilities such as school?
  2. Why did you decide to join the ROTC?
  3. Were you contacted by recruiters in high school? If so who?
  4. What are your future plans after the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign?
  5. Are you a part of any military-related organizations or RSOs? If so, which one?
  6. Do you struggle in school or relationships because of your commitment as an ROTC student?
  7. How often do you go to the Armory? Any classes in the building?
  8. Do you have any scholarships because of your commitment to ROTC?

1d.) Identify Interviewees & Survey Distribution Leads

  1. Ezequiel Barraza – Treasurer – Army ROTC Cadet Council
  2. Peter Villanova – Public Relations Director – Naval Reserve Officers Training Corps
  3. Jacob Smith – Primary Contact – The National Society of Pershing Rifles
  4. Kavya Vedurmudi – Secretary – Arnold Air Society

Part 2: Reading Response

One of the five different applications was the design of PLATO IV. PLATO IV was able to run thousands of terminals that were located away from the central computer and had a transmission rate of 1,200 bits/second (Bitzer 555). This gave students more access to information miles away from the central computer. Another application the PLATO system had was its interactive mode. A quick response time of 1/10 of a second is due to the storing of data in the extended core memory of the system (Bitzer 555). This makes the processes efficient and faster. The third design involves its ability to communicate with students that have disabilities. The PLATO system would ask the handicapped student questions and accurately determine if their answers are correct (Weber 17). The fourth design helped blind students use the PLATO system. The PLATO system had a software that changed the video output to an audio output by converting audio analog words into bits (Weber 18). For the final design, the abacus was incorporated into the PLATO System. The student would be given a problem, if they got it correct, they would move on to a more advanced question, if not, they will get a more simplified version (Weber 20). This provided the blind students with strategies that used the basic four arithmetic operations.

One of the biggest differences between the PLATO system and modern online platforms such as Khan Academy and Youtube is accessibility. The PLATO system required a computer that used the system and had a limit distance from the main computer. Online platforms have the promises of accessing the information from any place in the world as long as there is a good internet connection. Another difference between the online platforms and the PLATO system are their libraries of information. Khan Academy has numerous lectures ranging from math to history.

Week 06 – Lab Reflection + Reading Response

Part 1: Lab – Online Search & Project Development

1b.) 2 Primary Resources and 2 Secondary Resources

In order to answer my question of the military’s impact at the University of Illinois, I need to find out the experiences ROTC students at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Resource “Students Share their experiences as half student, half ROTC candidates” helps explore the military’s impact at the university and the influence on students’ lives.

In order to answer my question of the military’s impact on the University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, I need to find out the experiences of ROTC students. The resource “ROTC students share program experiences” helps explore the question because it provides me with more first-hand experiences as an ROTC student at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

In order to answer my question about the federal government’s influence on the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, I need to find out about the history of UIUC and its relationship with the government. The resource “American Higher Education: Learning and Culture from the Founding to World War II” helps answer this question by providing me with the history of land grant universities including the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

In order to answer my question regarding the federal government’s influence over the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, I need to find out about the history of Illinois as a land grant university. The resource “University of Illinois Centennial” helps answer the question by providing me with the history of the University of Illinois and the state government’s thoughts about the university.

1c.) Drafting Interview & Survey Questions

  • Are you a part of a military organization at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign? If so, which one?
  • Has a military recruiter ever been in contact with you?
  • Do you have any classes at the Armory?
  • What encouraged you to join the ROTC?
  • Do you struggle with school because of your commitment to ROTC?

Part 2: Reading Response

2a.) One of the strategies Foerster and the members of the BCL used to develop cybernetic practices is their striking of the Clabaugh Act (Prutzer). This act banned un-American activities and prohibited parts of free speech (Prutzer). This act ultimately led to the student group to sue the Board of Trustees at the University of Illinois for infringing on their rights (Prutzer).

Another strategy Foerster and the members of the BCL used was heuristics. Heuristics was an opportunity to bring research into the classroom according to Foerster (Hutchinson). This class enrolled numerous students and consisted of students producing a final book that would be added to the BCL publication (Hutchinson). This encouraged students to participate in research involved with the BCL.

The final strategy used to develop cybernetic practices was the organization and development of conferences related to cybernetics (Anderson). BCL recruited a diverse group of scholars such as anthropologists and biologists (Anderson). By recruiting scholars that were specialized in different fields, BCL and Foerster were able to develop cybernetic practices.

Four Questions

  1. Why was freedom of speech important to the development of cybernetic practices?
  2. Why was the diversification of academic fields needed?
  3. Other than cybernetics, what is the most important work done at the Biological Computer Laboratory?
  4. What are some interesting topics published by students working with the Biological Computer Laboratory?

Week 05 – Lab Reflection + Reading Response

Lab Reflection

1a.) Questions:

  • How has the United States military influenced the lifestyle of undergraduate students at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign?
  • What impact has the United States federal government made on the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign?

In order to answer these questions, I will use the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign digital library. The digital library will allow me to access important documents related to my question while maintaining the social distancing recommended by the CDC. I will use terms such as “war”, “military”, “military service”, and “World War I” to collect this data.

1b.) 4 Screenshots:

This page of the document is important to my question because it exemplifies the existing relationship the military had with the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. This document was published in 1893. The one concern I have using this source would be its late publication. The year of the publication could make it irrelevant to the question. Overall, one concern that could be brought up from this picture is the reason for the military building pre World War I.

Source: https://digital.library.illinois.edu/items/b7892ff0-7ee5-0135-017e-0050569601ca-d

This picture shows an example of undergraduate students that participated in the first World War. They are seen wearing military uniforms and badges on their left side. This photo was taken to promote the war effort, show support for the United States military, and encourage undergraduates to join.

Source: https://archon.library.illinois.edu/index.php?p=digitallibrary/digitalcontent&id=11064

This source explains that the armory was the building where male students would performed their required two year training at the University of Illinois. This emphasizes the impact the military had on students during World War I and campus layout. The military was important to the campus.

Source: https://archon.library.illinois.edu/index.php?p=digitallibrary/digitalcontent&id=6064

This image shows the previous armory in 1872. This armory was on the second floor of Machinery Hall. This space was also used as a gymnasium for undergraduates. Since this floor was gymnasium as well it could’ve been used to encourage students to join in the military training.

Source: https://archon.library.illinois.edu/index.php?p=digitallibrary/digitalcontent&id=993

1c.) Line of Inquiry

To answer this question, I will continue to research through these databases. I will also look into interviewing my fellow undergraduates who are currently in ROTC and other military programs at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. I could also collect data from undergraduates at ROTC.

Reading Response

Andrew Yang discusses the term “normal” in these chapters as the average. However, this term could be interpreted differently depending on the person. He felt embarrassed about his struggles and setbacks when he heard about the struggles of his Uber driver. For the first example of data, Andrew Yang uses information about the educational attainment of people in the United States. The source of this information was provided by the U.S. Census Bureau. He organizes the data by gender and race. This creates a divide in averages in men and women. There is also a divide in education among Whites, Blacks, Asians, and Hispanics. Andrew continues the divisions in education by organizing the incomes by education attainment. These education attainments show a divide in income among Americans.

The next set of data and statistics that Andrew Yang discusses is the largest occupational groups in the United States. The total number of workers in the United States is around 140 million according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics. He uses another source from the government which promotes the credibility of the data that he is presenting. Andrew Yang assumes that retail workers don’t have degrees. There is some truth to this claim, however, there is no direct statistic regarding the actual educational attainment. Another problem with this retail section is his manipulation of data. Mr. Yang uses the average salary of retail workers which is $22,900. He then uses the median age of the workers which is 39 years old. I do not have the average age of retail workers but the data would not be as alarming to readers if the average had a lower age then the median. He used the median data to emphasize the divide among working-class Americans.

The third piece of data and statistics discusses truck drivers in the United States. Mr. Yang states that truck driving is the most popular job in 29 of the 50 states. He then discusses the growing automatization of trucks. Andrew Yang that labor costs and fewer accidents would destroy this job market. He also explains that Elon Musk’s Teslas are self-driving. From my experience riding in a Tesla, the self-driving is not complete by itself. Sometimes the automation could turn off and require the driver to take control of the car. This could create the argument that self-driving trucks and cars are more dangerous than the current vehicles we drive today. However, the trial and error that comes with automation could make self-driving cars inevitable. Overall, Andrew Yang sums up the potential decline of truck drivers in the United States.

Week 04 – Lab Reflection + Reading Response

Lab Assignment

  1. I-Connect Diversity & Inclusion Workshop is a training that is designed to help students embrace differences and to build a welcoming campus community. The workshop uses collaborative exercises and discussions to build communication skills to work in diverse environments. The function of this workshop is to provide students with important discussions about our similarities and differences. The needs addressed by this workshop are the demands for diversity and inclusion in our communities and universities.
  2. Data such as the race of students at the University of Illinois would exemplify the need for this workshop. The tension between students would also urge the university to implement diversity and inclusion workshops to help improve communication between students.
  3. Research:
  4. One of the barriers this workshop faces is the lack of facilitators needed to run them every year. When I went to one of these workshops, students were not engaged in the discussions. It felt forced and awkward. The biggest challenge I believe the program faces is recruitment and engagement. I don’t believe anyone is opposed to the program because it enhances communication in a diverse environment. But people could argue that the program isn’t engaging students in thoughtful discussion.
  5. The program needs more students to participate in the workshops. More engagement would provide the workshops with more facilitators that could connect with the incoming students. The strategy is encouraging the students to participate in civil and exciting discussions about ourselves.

Reading Response

The three strategies that students, campus groups, and leadership used to communicate those concerns were the concerns of free speech. The first barrier these leaders addressed were the limits and right to free speech. Fear of the red scare was prevalent in the 1960s (Metz 12). George Stoddard’s walk between publicly rejecting communism while supporting the right to free speech exemplifies one of these strategies that combatted this barrier. (Metz 12). This strategy helped to discuss the limits of free speech while avoiding the red scare at the time. The next barrier these students, groups, and leadership were faced with were the boundaries of womanhood that were placed by society. In order to combat this barrier, women claimed public roles that were meant for men and clashed the expectations of male friends who were trying to prove their manhood (Evans 338). The final barrier faced by these groups was the objectification of women. Independence for men was prevalent, however, the same freedoms were not given to women. In order to combat this barrier, Anne Koedt’s “The Myth of the Vaginal Orgasm” issued a move for female sexual autonomy by attacking the assertions made by Sigmund Freud (Evans 344). It pushed sexual autonomy and independence from their male counterparts.

5 Questions:

  1. Were there other limits of freedom that were caused by the second red scare in the 1960s?
  2. Why was freedom of speech the battleground for professors and legislations during this time?
  3. Why were public roles meant for men important for women to claim in order to combat these barriers made against feminism?
  4. Are there negative impacts made by Sigmund Freud’s assertions?
  5. How has womanhood changed from the 1960s to the modern-day?

Week 03 – Lab Reflection + Reading Response

Lab Assignment

Through my observation at the DRES facility, I noticed a lot of strategies that I found interesting. For example, the elevator at the DRES facility are different from regular elevators. The buttons are made to be more accessible to students with disabilities. This emphasizes the relationship between the students with disabilities and the facilities ability to promote accessibility. Both the facility and the students need to communicate in order for the innovations to work. An example fo the interdisciplinary partnerships DRES has developed would be the USA Special Olympics team. This provides people with disabilities representation in the world of sports and the University of Illinois represents majority of the team in the United States. Their work with the Special Olympics helps them receive international recognition from governments. The last photo talks about the history of Beckwith Hall. It shows the development of the facility and the growth of the PA services. This service helps the students with disabilities receive first hand care from professionals.

  • Three photos:
  • Three Memorable Quotes:
    • “Even though I faced a lot of difficulties, DRES gave me the support and encouragement I needed to be able to graduate and get a job at Microsoft.”
    • “The presence of a problem is the absence of an idea.”
    • “Provide DRES students with the opportunity to study abroad.”

Overall, I believe the biggest challenge DRES faces in extending their story and impact is financial sustainability and funding. These are extremely difficult to receive from the government. A lot of these innovations require funding in order to fulfill the projects.

Reading Response

The first successful strategy used by African American students and the Black Students Association was called the 1968 Special Equal Opportunities Program. According to Frederick E Hoxie, “the BSA demanded that the university hire more black professors, establish a black cultural center, and organize an African American studies program” (220). This strategy helped to develop courses that embraced African American faculty members from social sciences, humanities, and fine arts (Hoxie 221). This was successful in promoting inclusion because it provided African American faculty members to connect with other African American members of the university. I would say BSA’s work is not complete yet because the group should continue to provide guidance and growth to African American students and their community. The next strategy was not as successful as the first one. According to Joy-Ann Williamson-Lott, “the SEOP participants were invited to arrive in Urbana-Champaign one week before other incoming students in the fall of 1968” (80). This strategy did not give the SEOP participants enough time to fulfill course placement tests and financial aid packages (Williamson-Lott 80). This was not successful because it did not prepare SEOP students with enough time to prepare for the academic year. The final strategy was as successful in helping the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. According to Williamson-Lott, “the Committee on Human Relations and Equal Opportunity proposed collecting racial data for all students, a suggestion that coincided with the 1964 Civil Rights Act…” (60). These figures emphasized the need for affirmative action and nondiscrimination policies (Williamson-Lott 60). This strategy successfully introduced the need for the University to push for nondiscriminatory policies. I believe there is more to complete because there should more strategies that prevent discrimination in student acceptance.

Week 02 – Lab Reflection + Reading Response

Lab Reflection

  • Questions:
    • What impact has the military and government made on the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign?
    • Has the military changed the lifestyle of students and faculty at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign?
  • Line of Inquiry:
    • I would need to find the military’s introduction to the university’s lifestyle. Finding the development of the military at the university will reveal its impact on the buildings and practices. This would also support my argument that the military has made an impact on the University as a whole.
  • 4 Pieces of Evidence:
    • According to the video “1941-1946: How Do Students Live Here?”, “the war would have a stunning effect on the University of Illinois campus, simultaneously draining it of most of its male students, then filling it back up with military trainees” (0:08 – 0:18). I chose this part of the video because it showed the impact the war had on the population of male students enrolled at the university. 
    • According to the James Era Building Tour in the “Campus Historic Maps and Timelines”, “all underclassmen were required to train for three hours a week, and a total of 1,525 soldiers trained actively – double that of most other National Guard units.” The University of Illinois had more National Guard units than any other university during this time. It shows the importance it had on the military and the military impact through the creation of the armory.
    • The next piece of evidence comes from the same video from the first piece. According to the video, “lured by the G.I. Bill, 11,000 veterans signed up at Illinois” (0:53 – 0:57). This example shows the impact the military had on veterans. After the war, they were provided with the opportunity to receive an education that would improve their livelihood.
    • According to the World War I Tour in the “Campus Historic Maps and Timelines, “the University’s engineering department undertook 16 war-related projects at the government’s request.” This showed the early relationship between the University of Illinois and the government. Their innovation as a university helped to push the war efforts for the United States military.
  • Analysis:
    • Overall, I learned a lot about the impactful relationship the University of Illinois creates with its students and alumni. The gallery provides students with the opportunity to participate in the history and heritage that is present at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. It was interesting to see the growth from Illinois Industrial University to the present sixteen college university.
    • My analysis answered my question regarding the impact the United States military had on the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The evidence showed the increase and decrease of male students during the war. It also shows the growth of the armory making it the biggest national guard training facility. I focused the majority of my research on the impact as a whole. I would say my research into the different buildings impacted by the military would be needed. However, my research has provided me with another question. Why did the United States government use the University of Illinois to train and grow their military body?

Reading Response

The different strategies that Nugent and the DRES Community used to disrupt the dominant image of “disability” were accommodations towards disabled veterans, disabled students’ ability to open doors and portray adaptability, and the integration of sports and recreation. These examples helped students with disabilities exemplify independence and reveal their strengths to the University of Illinois and the governor of Illinois. Another strategy that was used to change the perception of these students was governor William Stratton’s speech which legitimized the program. However, Nugent did not believe this strategy was impactful. According to Steven E. Brown, “Nugent thought legislation might force people to obey laws, but it could also stymie creativity in finding ways to enhance integration, whereas education could truly change attitudes” (180). Brown understood that Nugent wanted education to enhance and disrupt the older image of students with disabilities. Forcing schools to follow a strict set of rules would only limit the growth of disabled students.

One of the problems that needed to be overcome by DRES was the ability for students with disabilities to receive access to technologies at the University of Illinois. According to Expanding Horizons, “DRES has obtained several grants to initiate the development of a distributed network of assistive computer technology that may be used in dormitories or class areas” (31). These innovations have enabled DRES students to become visible on their own terms because the students would not be forced to receive the technology that was only provided at a rehab center. This provides the students with a choice to access the technology around the campus. More options in public area provides visibility in public spaces with their fellow peers.

Annotated Bibliography

Anderson, Bethany. “Heinz von Foerster and the Biological Computer Laboratory: A Cybernetics Odyssey.” Exhibits, University of Illinois Archives, 6 December 2016, https://archives.library.illinois.edu/blog/heinz-von-foerster-and-the-bcl/.

            The purpose of this blog is to inform the reader about the history of Heinz von Foerster and the creation of the Biological Computer Laboratory. Bethany Anderson is a blogger for the University of Illinois Archives. She has written other blogs on the website. The audience intended for this blog is undergraduates and graduate students of the University of Illinois. The style in this blog is intended to create a story about Heinz von Foerster and his push for the BCL.

Bitzer, Donald. “Use of CBE for the Handicapped.” American Annals of the Deaf, Gallaudet University Press, 1979.

            The purpose fo this chapter in American Annals of the Deaf is to inform the reader about the PLATO project’s impact on the handicapped. Donald Bitzer is an electrical engineer that has created a computer-based education system that could help handicapped students. The audience intended for this chapter in American Annal of the Deaf is researchers in technological-based education systems that want to improve the systems meant for the handicapped.

Brown, Steven E. “Breaking Barriers: The Pioneering Disability Students Services Program at the University of Illinois: 1948-1960.” Palgrave Macmillan, 2008.

            The purpose of this source is to inform the reader about the new disability service programs that made the University of Illinois a pioneer in shattering barriers that marginalized people with disabilities. Steven E. Brown is the co-founder of the Institute on Disability Culture. This provides insight into the history and cultural identity of people and students with disabilities. The audience intended for this source would be members of the University of Illinois because the students, faculty, alumni, and administration should learn about this part of Illinois history.

Commemorative Book Preparation and Publication Committee. Expanding Horizons: A History of the First 50 Years of the Division of Rehabilitation-Education Services at the University of Illinois. Roxford DT Pub., 1998.

            The purpose of this source is to inform the reader about the first fifty years of the Division of Rehabilitation-Education Services (DRES) at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The intended audience for this source would be the scholars of the University of Illinois. The style is intended to educate and inform the reader about historical DRES. There is a bias in this source because it assumes that the time between 1940-50, people only had a negative attitude towards people with disabilities.

“Congressional Record: University of Illinois Centennial” Committee on the Centennial, University of Illinois, 15 October 2009, pp. 73-76.

            The purpose of this record is to inform the Illinois House of Representatives about the international impact the University of Illinois has made. The author of the speech is William L. Springer. He was the House representative for Illinois’s 22nd district. This emphasizes that the author is credible. The intended audience is for the Illinois House of Representatives. The speech was meant for a new policy or legislation. The author’s style is reflected by the intended audience because he tries to inform and persuade the House of Representatives.

Dear, Brian. “Remembering the Future.” PLATO History, PLATO History Foundation, 2010, platohistoy.org/.

            The purpose of this website is to archive the history of the PLATO computer system and the people who built and designed the system. The author, Brian Dear, is a tech entrepreneur and startup mentor that runs the website. This emphasizes that the author has a good understanding in technology and technological systems. This website is meant for tech enthusiasts and students researching about the PLATO computer system.

Evans, Sara M. “Sons, Daughters, and Patriarchy: Gender and the 1968 Generation.” American Historical Review, 2009.

            The purpose of this source is to educate readers about the rise of feminism in the 1960s and discuss the patriarchy. Sara M. Evans is a professor of history at the University of Minnesota. She has a lot of experience in the field which makes her a credible source. The audience for this work is most likely for scholars or professors because she goes into a lot of detail and focuses on writing the history.

Geiger, Roger. The History of American Higher Education: Learning and Culture from the Founding to World War II.Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2015.

            The purpose of this book is to inform the reader about the history of American higher education. Roger Geiger is a Professor of Education at the Pennsylvania State University. This gives him credibility because he is an established researcher and professor at a respected university. The intended audience would be scholars and researchers in education because he is informing the audience about the history of higher education.

Harrison, Chase. “Program on Survey Research.” Harvard University Press, 2007.

            The purpose of this document is to provide readers with tips on wording the questions in a survey or questionnaire. The author, Chase Harrison, is an Associate Director of the Harvard program of Survey Research in the Department of Government. The audience intended for this document are researchers interested in created surveys or questionnaires.

“History of the United States Army School of Military Aeronautics at the University of Illinois Urbana, Illinois.” School of Military Aeronautics, University of Illinois, 1918.

            The purpose of this source is to discuss the history of the School of Military Aeronautics at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The audience intended for this source is scholars and researchers interested in the history of the SMA. The tone of the work focuses on informing the audience about the development of the school at the University of Illinois.

Hoxie, Fredrick E and Michael Hughes. “Nevada Street: A Center for the Study of Race and Ethnicity.” University of Illinois Press, 2017.

            The purpose of this source is to inform the reader about the study of race and ethnicity at Nevada Street. Frederick E. Hoxie is a professor of social and political history. He focused the majority of his research on indigenous people in North America. The audience intended for this work would be students, scholars, and professors researching race and ethnicity in Nevada Street.

Howard, Jessie. “Summary of Replies to the Questions Sent to Illini in Service.” Provost’s Office, 1944.

            The purpose of this questionnaire is to collection information about the Illini in service and understand the replies of the students. Jessie Howard is the man who ran the questionaire and analyzed the data at the end of the source. The audience is researchers and members of the military because it provides important data regarding future plans for students going back to the University of Illinois after the war.

Hutchinson, Jamie. “Heinz Von Foerster and the Biological Computer Laboratory.” “Nerve Center” of the Cybernetic World, http://bcl.ece.illinois.edu/hutchinson/index.htm.

            The purpose of this website is to inform viewers of the website about Heinz Von Foerster and the Biological Computer Laboratory. Jamie Hutchinson is Publications Editor at the Grainger College of Electrical and Computer Engineering. His perspective as an editor provides readers with more information about the Biological Computer Laboratory and its creator. The audience intended for this website is electrical and computer engineering majors.

Johnston, Edward S. “History of the Military Department University of Illinois 1869-1921.” Reserve Officers’ Training Corps, University of Illinois, 1921.

            The purpose of this source is to discuss the history of the military department at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Edward S. Johnston is a professor of Military Science and Tactics at the University of Illinois. His credentials give him the perspective needed to talk about the ROTC. The audience intended for this source is cadets and other undergraduates that are a part of the military at the University of Illinois.

Lamont, Valerie. “New Directions for the teaching Computer: Citizen Participation in Community Planning.” Computer-based Education Research Laboratory, 1973.

            The purpose of this document is to inform readers about an experiment testing the feasibility of using the teaching computer for involving people in community planning. Valerie Lamont is the researcher conducting the experiment. The audience intended for this source are researchers and graduate students interested in the PLATO project and its impact on technological learning.

Metz, Michael. “Radicals in the Heartland: The 1960s Student Protest Movement at the University of Illinois.” University of Illinois Press, 2019.

            The purpose of this source is to discuss the student protests that were occurring at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Michael Metz took part in high tech marketing but he also participated in student protests in the 1960s. His perspective as a student at the university provides the first-hand experience of the protests. The audience intended for this source is most likely students because he uses timelines to help illustrate the movement.

OECD. “Good Practices in Survey Design Step-by-Step.” Measuring Regulatory Performance: A Practitioner’s Guide to perception Surveys, OCED Publishing, Paris, 2012.

            The purpose of this publication is to discuss good practices that help the quality of results and avoid problems with surveys. OECD is and organization that helps to stimulate economic growth and promotes world trade. The audience intended for this document is researchers that are interested in producing surveys that help to collect data.

Prutzer, Ned. “The BCL and the Cybernetics Moment.” The Biological Computer Laboratory, 20 Jan. 2019, https://scalar.usc.edu/works/the-biological-computer-laboratory/the-bcl-and-the-cybernetics-moment?path=index.

            The purpose of this website is to create an intriguing website that informs the viewers about the Biological Computer Laboratory. Ned Prutzer is a PhD student in Communications and Media at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. His perspective as a PhD student provides research experience on the Biological Computer Laboratory. The audience intended for this website is most likely for PhD students interested in the Biological Computer Laboratory.

Schroeder, Paul. “Why?” The Daily Illini, 15 March 1968.

            The purpose of this speech is to encourage his fellow students to build new education for the future. Paul Schroeder is a representative of the Education Reform Committee. This means he has a good background in educational reform in higher education. The intended audience for this speech is students, faculty, and administration of the University of Illinois. This is reflected by the author’s tone when he encourages all members of the University to join in his desire to reform the education system.

Reagan, Leslie J. “Timothy Nugent: ‘Wheelchair Students’ and the Creation of the Most Accessible Campus in the World.” University of Illinois Press, 2017.

            The purpose of this source is to inform the reader about the creation of DRES and the impact of Timothy Nugent’s vision made serving students with disabilities. Leslie J. Reagan is the author of the source. She is a professor in the Department of History at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Her diplomas and experience as a professor establish her credibility in this field. The audience intended for this source is scholars and historians because she discusses the development of organizations such as DRES.

Smock, Richard, et al. “A Proposal to Encourage Undergraduate Educational Development at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Campus.” Cruel Staff Council, 1972.

            The purpose of this document is to propose appointing an Associate Vice Chancellor for Undergraduate Education at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The authors of this document are Richard Smock, Frank Duff, King Broadrick, and Roland Holmes. They are the Council members representing this proposal to the CRUEL Staff Council. The audience intended for this document is the Staff Council members of CRUEL. The beginning of the document explains that it is for the Staff Council and the wording of the document is phrased for the members.

“Unit One History.” History of Unit One Living-Learning Community, University Housing, 1994, housing.illinois.edu/Living-Options/Living-Learning-Communities/Unit-One/traditions/history. 

            The purpose of this website is to inform students and alumni of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign about the Unit One Living-Learning Community. The audience intended for this website are students, alumni, and professors at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. This is the targetted audience because it talks about the university’s rich history. The website brings up notable Illinois faculty such as Chancellor Jack Pelteson.

Weber, Larry. “Blind Student Power.” Technograph, 1968.

            The purpose of this article is to empower blind students and establish more perfect learning conditions for engineering students. Larry Weber is a student that is a part of the university. This is important because it helps the author connect with other students. The audience intended for this article is students because he uses “we the students” as a way to include students in the piece.

Williamson-Lott, Joy Ann. “Black Power on Campus: The University of Illinois.” University of Illinois Press, 2013.

            The purpose of this source is to inform the reader about the impact African Americans made at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Joy-Ann Williamson is a professor of education at the University of Washington. The audience for this source is students and professors because it discusses the history of federal policies intended for racial reconciliation in the 1960s.

Williamson-Lott, Joy Ann. “Clarence Shelley: The Campaign to Diversify the University.” University of Illinois Press, 2017.

            The purpose of this source is to inform the reader about the University’s campaign to diversify the campus. Joy-Ann Williamson is also the author of this source. She is also the Dean of the University of Washington’s Graduate School in the College of Education. The audience intended for this work is for professors and students at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

Yang, Andrew. The War on Normal People: The Truth About America’s Disappearing Jobs. Hachette Books, 2018.

            The purpose of this book is to inform the readers about the causes for the decline in industrial jobs in the United States. Andrew Yang was a democratic presidential candidate who was known for his Universal Basic Income policy. The audience intended for this book is working class Americans in the United States. He targets the working class and explains the causes for the decline in paying jobs.