Goose

Week 13 – Lab Reflection + Reading Response

Part 1: Lab – Final Project Workshop

Part 2: Reading Response

I. Introduction

a. Background: The Reserve Officer Training Corps has been a prevalent part of the history of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. According to Rachel Melancon, contributing writer to the Daily Illini, “Reserve Officer Training Corps. is a program through the military that allows students to not only receive valuable scholarships towards their education but also provides them with the opportunity to enter the military with the status of officer.” This program provides the students with the opportunity to develop into military leaders.

As a Land Grant University, the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign has received federal funding in order to continue the educational development of students across the country (Geiger 285). This information establishes an existing relationship between the University of Illinois with the federal government of the United States. The federal government’s influence on the university has resulted in military related educational developments.

b. Thesis: Through organizations like the Reserve Officer Training Corp, students can obtain time management skills that will help them be successful at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. In order to understand the development of time management through the Reserve Officer Training Corps, we must discuss the data collected from the survey, archives, readings, and interviews.

II. Body

a. Data Archives:

i. “The University of Illinois was the first of the educational institutions of the United States to offer its services and facilities to the government when the entrance of the United States into war with Germany was imminent in the spring of 1917” (“History of the United States Army School of Military Aeronautics at the University of Illinois Urbana, Illinois.”).

The relationship between the federal government and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign is prevalent in this quote. The imminent threat from the German military pushed the United States into war. The educational institutions like the University of Illinois provided the United States with recruits and resources to develop supporters for the military effort. This quote helps to show the balance between the funding of the federal government and the resources and man power of the University of Illinois.

b. Readings

i. “In 1917 American students, faculty, and administrators experienced the euphoria of war, as had their counterparts in other belligerent nations 3 years before. Universities immediately proffered their services for training, research, and morale building but ended by abandoning their academic mission almost entirely” (Geiger 423).

Geiger explains the relationship between the Land Grant Universities and the federal government of the United States. The university would provide training, research, and other developments while the federal government would provide the university with essential funding. The funding provided by the federal government helped the university to keep the school running and continue educating the young adults of the United States.

c. Data from Interview:

i. “I think it’s just kind of like a learning curve when you’re a freshman and you’re just like, it’s kind of a lot more responsibility than what you’re used to in high school, like within our fighting alumni battalion, our cadets, we kind of take leadership roles like squad leader, team leader, first sergeant, platoon sergeant, and all the way up to like battalion commander. And so as you progress in the program and progress, like in school, you’re getting more responsibility leadership responsibility in ROTC so it’s kind of part of the training where you just have to learn how to manage your time wisely. But I would say that, yeah majority of my time has to be spent on ROTC and just maintaining good grades I don’t really have a lot of time for like school related clubs, I’d say. But, yeah majority of my extra time has to be spent on the Reserve Officer Training Corp.” (Koester).

Annika explains that a lot of pressures are a part of the learning curve. When a student is given these responsibilities, he or she must recognize and manage it. Leadership is a major theme prevalent in her quote. It is important for a Reserve Officer Training Corp student to participate in the development of time management. The time commitment required by the ROTC forces students to develop a strategy that helps them to keep up with school, maintain a good GPA, and still have time for other activities and relationships. However, she says she has a hard time participating in other clubs because her commitment to the ROTC takes up the majority of her schedule.

d. Survey Data

i. Through the current data regarding Reserve Officer Training Corps students, one disagreed with the statement that they were able to successfully balance between their academic work with their commitment to organization. Three students agreed with the statement, one student was neutral, and two students strongly agreed to the statement in question 11. These results emphasize that the students that are in ROTC are capable of creating a balance between their course work in school with their commitment to the organization.

This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is Screen-Shot-2020-11-09-at-1.23.22-AM-1024x441.png

III. Conclusion

a. Through the archives, interviews, and data survey, time management is revealed as an important trait that is pushed in organizations like ROTC. The archives and readings helped to establish the relationship between the Land Grant Univeristy with the federal government of the United States. During my interview with Annika, she emphasized the importance of camaraderie with time management and responsibility. The Reserve Officer Training Corps hold cadets accountable for their actions and management skills. The date helped to emphasize the balance between school and organizations that are required by ROTC students at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Chamapign. By understanding the data and lessons learned from these students in ROTC, students can be successful at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

Week 12 – Lab + Reading Response

Part 1: Lab – Excel Workshop

1a) Lab/Post Lab Assignment

  1. Question: How can organizations like the ROTC improve a student’s time management skills at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign? This question contributes to the research topic because it compares the time management skills that come with organizations like the Reserve Officer Training Corps. The question could reveal the opinions of other organizations and compare them with students in ROTC. It could possibly show an emphasis on management skills that are important to have in college.
  2. Visualization:
This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is Screen-Shot-2020-11-15-at-8.51.43-PM-1024x438.png

3. This visualization is easier to understand compare to the data from the pivot table because the visual presentation provides the viewer with a bigger picture. It uses colors and graphs to represent and organize the data. The graph shows that the majority of the students that took the survey show great time management skills which are important to be successful in college.

The visualization is better than the pivot table because the pivot table only shows the viewer numbers. The table creates a scale of the answers which separates it from just a couple of numbers. It displays the sum of each of the decisions. It’s important for visual learners to see the bigger picture of the data presented in this Pivot Chart. This will help me better understand the data regarding time management and the balance of academic work with extracurriculars like ROTC.

Part 2: Reading Response

2a) The purpose of this Champaign County Illinois Community Health Improvement Plan is to establish the demographics of the residents of the county and create the healthiest and safest community to live, work, and visit in the State of Illinois. The document discusses the major health problems faced with residents in the Champaign community. They have three focuses. They include: behavioral health, obesity, and violence. The document tries to focus on promoting police-community relations, improve access to healthy food options, and promote education and training on mental and behavioral health.

The document provides a lot of visuals that help to explain the processes and strategies included in the health improvement plan. They help to organize and clearly explain the data about the residents of Champaign County. This helps to readers to easily follow along with the plan. The maps helps to organize the demographics of people as well. The maps also reveal the patterns of demographics with household income and health insurance data.

Outline

I. Introduction

a. Background: The Reserve Officer Training Corps has been a prevalent part of the history of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

b. Thesis: Through organizations like the Reserve Officer Training Corp, students can obtain time management skills that will help them be successful at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

II. Body

a. Data Archives:

i. “The University of Illinois was the first of the educational institutions of the United States to offer its services and facilities to the government when the entrance of the United States into war with Germany was imminent in the spring of 1917” (“History of the United States Army School of Military Aeronautics at the University of Illinois Urbana, Illinois.”).

b. Data from Interview:

i. “I think it’s just kind of like a learning curve when you’re a freshman and you’re just like, it’s kind of a lot more responsibility than what you’re used to in high school, like within our fighting alumni battalion, our cadets, we kind of take leadership roles like squad leader, team leader, first sergeant, platoon sergeant, and all the way up to like battalion commander. And so as you progress in the program and progress, like in school, you’re getting more responsibility leadership responsibility in ROTC so it’s kind of part of the training where you just have to learn how to manage your time wisely. But I would say that, yeah majority of my time has to be spent on ROTC and just maintaining good grades I don’t really have a lot of time for like school related clubs, I’d say. But, yeah majority of my extra time has to be spent on the Reserve Officer Training Corp.” (Koester).

c. Readings

i. “In 1917 American students, faculty, and administrators experienced the euphoria of war, as had their counterparts in other belligerent nations 3 years before. Universities immediately proffered their services for training, research, and morale building but ended by abandoning their academic mission almost entirely” (Geiger 423).

d. Survey Data

This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is Screen-Shot-2020-11-09-at-1.23.22-AM-1024x441.png

III. Conclusion

a. Through the archives, interview, and data survey, time management is revealed as an important trait that is pushed in organizations like ROTC. By understanding the data and lessons learned from these students in ROTC, students can be successful at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

Week 11 – Lab Reflection + Reading Response

Part 1: Lab – Excel Workshop

1b.)Lab/Post-Lab Assignment

  1. Question: How can organizations like the ROTC improve a student’s time management skills at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign?

This question will help me to research and analyze the time management skills that many ROTC students obtain through their four years at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Time management is important in a successful life. ROTC students excel at balancing their workload with their commitment to the Corp.

2. Pivot Table:

Currently the responses from the ROTC section are empty. However, I send the survey to more ROTC students at the University of Illinois. Hopefully they filled out the survey.

Excel Sheet:

3. My pivot table will answer the question because the table will show the answers made by the ROTC students will trend towards the “Strongly Agree” and “Agree” answers. Based off of my interview with Annika, the Freshman ROTC students will most likely Disagree with the statement, but the upperclassmen will Agree with the statement showing a growth in time management skills.

I will hope that the data will expands on my interview with Annika because she discussed that she struggled with managing her time during her freshman year. She eventually learned to balance school with her commitment to the Reserve Corp. The ROTC commitment requires a lot of time and sacrifice. Many of the freshman ROTC students should show a struggle with managing their time, but it depends on how quickly the students are able to balance their commitments.

Part 2: Reading Response

5 Different Applications:

  1. Genius – “The ability to annotate any page on the internet with commentary and additional information” (Andreessen).
  2. Genius – “Create the Internet Talmud” (Andreessen).
  3. Free-Net – “Brought email, discussion groups and the fledging World Wide Web to anyone with access to a computer and modem” (Newby).
  4. Prairienet – “first taste that many thousands of people had on the Internet, and offered a springboard to the many new opportunities for commercial dial-in services” (Newby).
  5. Mosaic – “gives the Internet what the Macintosh gave the personal computer: a navigation system that can be understood at a glance by anybody who can point and click a mouse” (Canales 154).

The difference between the Mosaic and other information access is the idea of the interface. Mosaic was one of the first used point-and-click interfaces for the internet that is used a navigational tool for exploring data. It became the first successful browser because it created an image of the internet for people to view and enjoy. If I were in the room working with Andreessen, Bina, and other young researchers, I would recommend that Mosaic offered students with disabilities the opportunity to use the interface through VoiceOver options and other accessibilities. This recommendation would give Mosaic a bigger audience.

Week 10 – Lab Reflection + Reading Response

Part 2: “Re-Designing Visualizations” Response

Sketch:

Website:

My visualization tries to change the narrative by emphasizing the ongoing pandemics that are affecting the world. AIDS/HIV and COVID-19 are still ongoing pandemics but the AIDS/HIV epidemic is still not resolved or stopped. Although COVID-19 is a major problem right now, we shouldn’t forget on going pandemics like HIV/AIDS. My redesign tries to simplify the major impact the bubonic plague had on the world population which is easily read by the graph. However, it compares current pandemics in the present day which are minuscule to to the deaths of the past.

Week 09 – Lab Reflection + Reading Response

Part 1: Lab Reflection

1b.) Transcribe Interview

  1. “Yeah, I was contacted through Facebook and an ROTC booth was at my high school. Um, once I said that I was slightly interested in the program I got many emails from like the ROTC program from like the University of Illinois and their office.”
  2. “Okay, yeah, we train three days a week in the morning for an hour from 6 to 7am.”
  3. “I think it’s just kind of like a learning curve when you’re a freshman and you’re just like, it’s kind of a lot more responsibility than what you’re used to in high school, like within our fighting alumni battalion, our cadets, we kind of take leadership roles like squad leader, team leader, first sergeant, platoon sergeant, and all the way up to like battalion commander. And so as you progress in the program and progress, like in school, you’re getting more responsibility leadership responsibility in ROTC so it’s kind of part of the training where you just have to learn how to manage your time wisely.”

Part 2: Reading Response

a.) Example: An example of a critique was the absence of administration supervision of the students that were apart of the organization.

b.) One of the challenges Unit One faced during its lifetime was its funding. It was eliminated from the Illinois budget three times in 1978, 1979, and 1980. This happened because it was argued that it never reached the excellence it promised when implemented. Funding is important for sustaining a organization’s life.

c.) The evolution of Unit One/Allen Hall makes visible is the financial vulnerabilities that are present with the innovations. My first lab reflection discusses the financial vulnerabilities that are present. Sidewalks, streets, and other pathways need to be fixed or remodeled. The problem with this demand is the lack of funding that will fulfill the demand.

Peltason notes that “now is the time” because the author feels that the University of Illinois is the not the leading institution in providing instruction for underclassmen with a high faulty education system. He wants to help the students that are struggling at the University of Illinois. Academic advising, according to this document, is inadequate for the underclassmen. This puts a pressure on the underclassmen because the requirements needed for their major could be more confusing to the underclassmen. Another problem is the evaluation system that provides the students with the credited hours. Courses providing different methods and hours credits confusion and inefficiency. This creates more pressure for the student because there is a mix of confusion and stress when applying and taking courses at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

Week 08 – Lab Reflection + Reading Response

Part 1: Lab – Interview and Survey Design

1b.) Schedule Interview

I scheduled the interview on the 22nd of October with Annika.

1c.) Survey Quesitions

  1. I am able to successfully balance academic work with my requirements at the Reserve Officer Training Corps.
  2. Reserve Officer Training Corps has helped me to make better use of my time.
  3. Technology has been helpful in balancing my time with ROTC and school at the University of Illinois.
  4. My experience as an ROTC student at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign has made me a better person.
  5. I am able to maintain and create new friendships outside of the Reserve Officers Training Corps.
  6. COVID-19 has not disturbed my balance with ROTC and academics at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
  7. Social media platforms have developed my growth as a University of Illinois student.
  8. I have great connections with my ROTC students.

1d.) Survey Distribution Leads

  • Tyler Anderson – Primary Contact – NROTC Rifle-Pistol Team
  • Jack Marshall – President – Flying Illini Booster Club

Part 2: Reading Response

2a.) Reading Response

The three secondary sources include the “History of the United States Army School of Military Aeronautics,” “Summary of Replies to the Questions Sent to Illini in Service,” and “History of the Military Department.” In the “History of the United States Army School of Military Aeronautics,” the author is looking to answer the history behind the United States Army School of Military Aeronautics at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. He does this by establishing a timeline of important events in the history of the School of Military Aeronautics. “Summary of Replies to the Questions Sent to Illini in Service” tries to answer questions such as their expected return date to the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and their course of study when they intend to enroll. He collects this information because the data will help the University of Illinois receive feedback from the students. The “History of the Military Department” tries to answer the questions behind the creation of the Military Department at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The “History of the United States Army School of Military Aeronautics” answers this question by citing and quoting professors and members of the School of Military Aeronautics. The “Summary of Replies to the Questions Sent to Illini in Service” answers this question by collecting data from the answers to the questionnaires. They collect information from military members returning to the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign to complete their education. “History of the Military Department” attacks this question through surveys and quotes from professors from the Military Department. The survey received over 16,000 responses from military students returning or continuing their education at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. “History of the United States Army School of Military Aeronautics” builds its story around the Armory. This source discusses the impact of the Armory at the University of Illinois. The next source, “Summary of Replies to the Questions Sent to Illini in Service,” builds their story around the College of Medicine and Engineering and the Department of Aeronautical Engineering. The author emphasizes the influence of the Military Department on the Colleges with the University of Illinois. The final source, “History of the Military Department,” builds their story around the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Military Department. It collects data of students that participate in Military related services in each college such as the College of Agriculture and the College of Engineering. I plan to use these three sources to establish the history of the School of Military Aeronautics and the history of the Military Department at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. I will use the data from the “Summary of Replies to the Questions Sent to Illini in Service” to examine the lifestyle of military students at the University of Illinois.

Five Key Takeaways:

  1. Don’t reinvent the wheel and create your own measurement if someone else provides you a reliable way to measure the concept.
  2. Keep the questions short and simple
  3. Define the objects of the survey before you make it
  4. Avoid vague terms that could confuse the person taking the questionnaire
  5. Create a rating scale that helps to answer attitude questions

These are relevant to me because the students in ROTC and other military-related organizations are going to be busy. Creating complex questions will discourage them from completing the questionnaire or create confusion. People do not have time to think about confusing questions. I also over think simple concepts such as the measurements of the questionnaire. Avoiding the reinvention of the wheel will save me time.

Week 07 – Lab Reflection + Reading Response

Part 1: Lab – Ethical Research and Best Practices

1b.) Archives

This first source will help me in my research because it provides me with the relationship between the United States military and the University of Illinois. The source also establishes the history of the United States Army school.

The second source goes through the different replies given by 16,500 former University of Illinois students that were a part of the armed forces. The questionnaire focuses on the students’ plans after their return from the war and their recommendations.

The final source discusses the history of the military department at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The source also talks about the history of the ROTC and other branches of the military that are at the University of Illinois.

1c.) Interview Questions

  1. What is a day like as an ROTC student balancing other responsibilities such as school?
  2. Why did you decide to join the ROTC?
  3. Were you contacted by recruiters in high school? If so who?
  4. What are your future plans after the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign?
  5. Are you a part of any military-related organizations or RSOs? If so, which one?
  6. Do you struggle in school or relationships because of your commitment as an ROTC student?
  7. How often do you go to the Armory? Any classes in the building?
  8. Do you have any scholarships because of your commitment to ROTC?

1d.) Identify Interviewees & Survey Distribution Leads

  1. Ezequiel Barraza – Treasurer – Army ROTC Cadet Council
  2. Peter Villanova – Public Relations Director – Naval Reserve Officers Training Corps
  3. Jacob Smith – Primary Contact – The National Society of Pershing Rifles
  4. Kavya Vedurmudi – Secretary – Arnold Air Society

Part 2: Reading Response

One of the five different applications was the design of PLATO IV. PLATO IV was able to run thousands of terminals that were located away from the central computer and had a transmission rate of 1,200 bits/second (Bitzer 555). This gave students more access to information miles away from the central computer. Another application the PLATO system had was its interactive mode. A quick response time of 1/10 of a second is due to the storing of data in the extended core memory of the system (Bitzer 555). This makes the processes efficient and faster. The third design involves its ability to communicate with students that have disabilities. The PLATO system would ask the handicapped student questions and accurately determine if their answers are correct (Weber 17). The fourth design helped blind students use the PLATO system. The PLATO system had a software that changed the video output to an audio output by converting audio analog words into bits (Weber 18). For the final design, the abacus was incorporated into the PLATO System. The student would be given a problem, if they got it correct, they would move on to a more advanced question, if not, they will get a more simplified version (Weber 20). This provided the blind students with strategies that used the basic four arithmetic operations.

One of the biggest differences between the PLATO system and modern online platforms such as Khan Academy and Youtube is accessibility. The PLATO system required a computer that used the system and had a limit distance from the main computer. Online platforms have the promises of accessing the information from any place in the world as long as there is a good internet connection. Another difference between the online platforms and the PLATO system are their libraries of information. Khan Academy has numerous lectures ranging from math to history.

Week 06 – Lab Reflection + Reading Response

Part 1: Lab – Online Search & Project Development

1b.) 2 Primary Resources and 2 Secondary Resources

In order to answer my question of the military’s impact at the University of Illinois, I need to find out the experiences ROTC students at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Resource “Students Share their experiences as half student, half ROTC candidates” helps explore the military’s impact at the university and the influence on students’ lives.

In order to answer my question of the military’s impact on the University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, I need to find out the experiences of ROTC students. The resource “ROTC students share program experiences” helps explore the question because it provides me with more first-hand experiences as an ROTC student at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

In order to answer my question about the federal government’s influence on the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, I need to find out about the history of UIUC and its relationship with the government. The resource “American Higher Education: Learning and Culture from the Founding to World War II” helps answer this question by providing me with the history of land grant universities including the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

In order to answer my question regarding the federal government’s influence over the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, I need to find out about the history of Illinois as a land grant university. The resource “University of Illinois Centennial” helps answer the question by providing me with the history of the University of Illinois and the state government’s thoughts about the university.

1c.) Drafting Interview & Survey Questions

  • Are you a part of a military organization at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign? If so, which one?
  • Has a military recruiter ever been in contact with you?
  • Do you have any classes at the Armory?
  • What encouraged you to join the ROTC?
  • Do you struggle with school because of your commitment to ROTC?

Part 2: Reading Response

2a.) One of the strategies Foerster and the members of the BCL used to develop cybernetic practices is their striking of the Clabaugh Act (Prutzer). This act banned un-American activities and prohibited parts of free speech (Prutzer). This act ultimately led to the student group to sue the Board of Trustees at the University of Illinois for infringing on their rights (Prutzer).

Another strategy Foerster and the members of the BCL used was heuristics. Heuristics was an opportunity to bring research into the classroom according to Foerster (Hutchinson). This class enrolled numerous students and consisted of students producing a final book that would be added to the BCL publication (Hutchinson). This encouraged students to participate in research involved with the BCL.

The final strategy used to develop cybernetic practices was the organization and development of conferences related to cybernetics (Anderson). BCL recruited a diverse group of scholars such as anthropologists and biologists (Anderson). By recruiting scholars that were specialized in different fields, BCL and Foerster were able to develop cybernetic practices.

Four Questions

  1. Why was freedom of speech important to the development of cybernetic practices?
  2. Why was the diversification of academic fields needed?
  3. Other than cybernetics, what is the most important work done at the Biological Computer Laboratory?
  4. What are some interesting topics published by students working with the Biological Computer Laboratory?

Week 05 – Lab Reflection + Reading Response

Lab Reflection

1a.) Questions:

  • How has the United States military influenced the lifestyle of undergraduate students at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign?
  • What impact has the United States federal government made on the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign?

In order to answer these questions, I will use the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign digital library. The digital library will allow me to access important documents related to my question while maintaining the social distancing recommended by the CDC. I will use terms such as “war”, “military”, “military service”, and “World War I” to collect this data.

1b.) 4 Screenshots:

This page of the document is important to my question because it exemplifies the existing relationship the military had with the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. This document was published in 1893. The one concern I have using this source would be its late publication. The year of the publication could make it irrelevant to the question. Overall, one concern that could be brought up from this picture is the reason for the military building pre World War I.

Source: https://digital.library.illinois.edu/items/b7892ff0-7ee5-0135-017e-0050569601ca-d

This picture shows an example of undergraduate students that participated in the first World War. They are seen wearing military uniforms and badges on their left side. This photo was taken to promote the war effort, show support for the United States military, and encourage undergraduates to join.

Source: https://archon.library.illinois.edu/index.php?p=digitallibrary/digitalcontent&id=11064

This source explains that the armory was the building where male students would performed their required two year training at the University of Illinois. This emphasizes the impact the military had on students during World War I and campus layout. The military was important to the campus.

Source: https://archon.library.illinois.edu/index.php?p=digitallibrary/digitalcontent&id=6064

This image shows the previous armory in 1872. This armory was on the second floor of Machinery Hall. This space was also used as a gymnasium for undergraduates. Since this floor was gymnasium as well it could’ve been used to encourage students to join in the military training.

Source: https://archon.library.illinois.edu/index.php?p=digitallibrary/digitalcontent&id=993

1c.) Line of Inquiry

To answer this question, I will continue to research through these databases. I will also look into interviewing my fellow undergraduates who are currently in ROTC and other military programs at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. I could also collect data from undergraduates at ROTC.

Reading Response

Andrew Yang discusses the term “normal” in these chapters as the average. However, this term could be interpreted differently depending on the person. He felt embarrassed about his struggles and setbacks when he heard about the struggles of his Uber driver. For the first example of data, Andrew Yang uses information about the educational attainment of people in the United States. The source of this information was provided by the U.S. Census Bureau. He organizes the data by gender and race. This creates a divide in averages in men and women. There is also a divide in education among Whites, Blacks, Asians, and Hispanics. Andrew continues the divisions in education by organizing the incomes by education attainment. These education attainments show a divide in income among Americans.

The next set of data and statistics that Andrew Yang discusses is the largest occupational groups in the United States. The total number of workers in the United States is around 140 million according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics. He uses another source from the government which promotes the credibility of the data that he is presenting. Andrew Yang assumes that retail workers don’t have degrees. There is some truth to this claim, however, there is no direct statistic regarding the actual educational attainment. Another problem with this retail section is his manipulation of data. Mr. Yang uses the average salary of retail workers which is $22,900. He then uses the median age of the workers which is 39 years old. I do not have the average age of retail workers but the data would not be as alarming to readers if the average had a lower age then the median. He used the median data to emphasize the divide among working-class Americans.

The third piece of data and statistics discusses truck drivers in the United States. Mr. Yang states that truck driving is the most popular job in 29 of the 50 states. He then discusses the growing automatization of trucks. Andrew Yang that labor costs and fewer accidents would destroy this job market. He also explains that Elon Musk’s Teslas are self-driving. From my experience riding in a Tesla, the self-driving is not complete by itself. Sometimes the automation could turn off and require the driver to take control of the car. This could create the argument that self-driving trucks and cars are more dangerous than the current vehicles we drive today. However, the trial and error that comes with automation could make self-driving cars inevitable. Overall, Andrew Yang sums up the potential decline of truck drivers in the United States.