Goose

Week 04 – Lab Reflection + Reading Response

Lab Assignment

  1. I-Connect Diversity & Inclusion Workshop is a training that is designed to help students embrace differences and to build a welcoming campus community. The workshop uses collaborative exercises and discussions to build communication skills to work in diverse environments. The function of this workshop is to provide students with important discussions about our similarities and differences. The needs addressed by this workshop are the demands for diversity and inclusion in our communities and universities.
  2. Data such as the race of students at the University of Illinois would exemplify the need for this workshop. The tension between students would also urge the university to implement diversity and inclusion workshops to help improve communication between students.
  3. Research:
  4. One of the barriers this workshop faces is the lack of facilitators needed to run them every year. When I went to one of these workshops, students were not engaged in the discussions. It felt forced and awkward. The biggest challenge I believe the program faces is recruitment and engagement. I don’t believe anyone is opposed to the program because it enhances communication in a diverse environment. But people could argue that the program isn’t engaging students in thoughtful discussion.
  5. The program needs more students to participate in the workshops. More engagement would provide the workshops with more facilitators that could connect with the incoming students. The strategy is encouraging the students to participate in civil and exciting discussions about ourselves.

Reading Response

The three strategies that students, campus groups, and leadership used to communicate those concerns were the concerns of free speech. The first barrier these leaders addressed were the limits and right to free speech. Fear of the red scare was prevalent in the 1960s (Metz 12). George Stoddard’s walk between publicly rejecting communism while supporting the right to free speech exemplifies one of these strategies that combatted this barrier. (Metz 12). This strategy helped to discuss the limits of free speech while avoiding the red scare at the time. The next barrier these students, groups, and leadership were faced with were the boundaries of womanhood that were placed by society. In order to combat this barrier, women claimed public roles that were meant for men and clashed the expectations of male friends who were trying to prove their manhood (Evans 338). The final barrier faced by these groups was the objectification of women. Independence for men was prevalent, however, the same freedoms were not given to women. In order to combat this barrier, Anne Koedt’s “The Myth of the Vaginal Orgasm” issued a move for female sexual autonomy by attacking the assertions made by Sigmund Freud (Evans 344). It pushed sexual autonomy and independence from their male counterparts.

5 Questions:

  1. Were there other limits of freedom that were caused by the second red scare in the 1960s?
  2. Why was freedom of speech the battleground for professors and legislations during this time?
  3. Why were public roles meant for men important for women to claim in order to combat these barriers made against feminism?
  4. Are there negative impacts made by Sigmund Freud’s assertions?
  5. How has womanhood changed from the 1960s to the modern-day?

Week 03 – Lab Reflection + Reading Response

Lab Assignment

Through my observation at the DRES facility, I noticed a lot of strategies that I found interesting. For example, the elevator at the DRES facility are different from regular elevators. The buttons are made to be more accessible to students with disabilities. This emphasizes the relationship between the students with disabilities and the facilities ability to promote accessibility. Both the facility and the students need to communicate in order for the innovations to work. An example fo the interdisciplinary partnerships DRES has developed would be the USA Special Olympics team. This provides people with disabilities representation in the world of sports and the University of Illinois represents majority of the team in the United States. Their work with the Special Olympics helps them receive international recognition from governments. The last photo talks about the history of Beckwith Hall. It shows the development of the facility and the growth of the PA services. This service helps the students with disabilities receive first hand care from professionals.

  • Three photos:
  • Three Memorable Quotes:
    • “Even though I faced a lot of difficulties, DRES gave me the support and encouragement I needed to be able to graduate and get a job at Microsoft.”
    • “The presence of a problem is the absence of an idea.”
    • “Provide DRES students with the opportunity to study abroad.”

Overall, I believe the biggest challenge DRES faces in extending their story and impact is financial sustainability and funding. These are extremely difficult to receive from the government. A lot of these innovations require funding in order to fulfill the projects.

Reading Response

The first successful strategy used by African American students and the Black Students Association was called the 1968 Special Equal Opportunities Program. According to Frederick E Hoxie, “the BSA demanded that the university hire more black professors, establish a black cultural center, and organize an African American studies program” (220). This strategy helped to develop courses that embraced African American faculty members from social sciences, humanities, and fine arts (Hoxie 221). This was successful in promoting inclusion because it provided African American faculty members to connect with other African American members of the university. I would say BSA’s work is not complete yet because the group should continue to provide guidance and growth to African American students and their community. The next strategy was not as successful as the first one. According to Joy-Ann Williamson-Lott, “the SEOP participants were invited to arrive in Urbana-Champaign one week before other incoming students in the fall of 1968” (80). This strategy did not give the SEOP participants enough time to fulfill course placement tests and financial aid packages (Williamson-Lott 80). This was not successful because it did not prepare SEOP students with enough time to prepare for the academic year. The final strategy was as successful in helping the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. According to Williamson-Lott, “the Committee on Human Relations and Equal Opportunity proposed collecting racial data for all students, a suggestion that coincided with the 1964 Civil Rights Act…” (60). These figures emphasized the need for affirmative action and nondiscrimination policies (Williamson-Lott 60). This strategy successfully introduced the need for the University to push for nondiscriminatory policies. I believe there is more to complete because there should more strategies that prevent discrimination in student acceptance.

Week 02 – Lab Reflection + Reading Response

Lab Reflection

  • Questions:
    • What impact has the military and government made on the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign?
    • Has the military changed the lifestyle of students and faculty at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign?
  • Line of Inquiry:
    • I would need to find the military’s introduction to the university’s lifestyle. Finding the development of the military at the university will reveal its impact on the buildings and practices. This would also support my argument that the military has made an impact on the University as a whole.
  • 4 Pieces of Evidence:
    • According to the video “1941-1946: How Do Students Live Here?”, “the war would have a stunning effect on the University of Illinois campus, simultaneously draining it of most of its male students, then filling it back up with military trainees” (0:08 – 0:18). I chose this part of the video because it showed the impact the war had on the population of male students enrolled at the university. 
    • According to the James Era Building Tour in the “Campus Historic Maps and Timelines”, “all underclassmen were required to train for three hours a week, and a total of 1,525 soldiers trained actively – double that of most other National Guard units.” The University of Illinois had more National Guard units than any other university during this time. It shows the importance it had on the military and the military impact through the creation of the armory.
    • The next piece of evidence comes from the same video from the first piece. According to the video, “lured by the G.I. Bill, 11,000 veterans signed up at Illinois” (0:53 – 0:57). This example shows the impact the military had on veterans. After the war, they were provided with the opportunity to receive an education that would improve their livelihood.
    • According to the World War I Tour in the “Campus Historic Maps and Timelines, “the University’s engineering department undertook 16 war-related projects at the government’s request.” This showed the early relationship between the University of Illinois and the government. Their innovation as a university helped to push the war efforts for the United States military.
  • Analysis:
    • Overall, I learned a lot about the impactful relationship the University of Illinois creates with its students and alumni. The gallery provides students with the opportunity to participate in the history and heritage that is present at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. It was interesting to see the growth from Illinois Industrial University to the present sixteen college university.
    • My analysis answered my question regarding the impact the United States military had on the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The evidence showed the increase and decrease of male students during the war. It also shows the growth of the armory making it the biggest national guard training facility. I focused the majority of my research on the impact as a whole. I would say my research into the different buildings impacted by the military would be needed. However, my research has provided me with another question. Why did the United States government use the University of Illinois to train and grow their military body?

Reading Response

The different strategies that Nugent and the DRES Community used to disrupt the dominant image of “disability” were accommodations towards disabled veterans, disabled students’ ability to open doors and portray adaptability, and the integration of sports and recreation. These examples helped students with disabilities exemplify independence and reveal their strengths to the University of Illinois and the governor of Illinois. Another strategy that was used to change the perception of these students was governor William Stratton’s speech which legitimized the program. However, Nugent did not believe this strategy was impactful. According to Steven E. Brown, “Nugent thought legislation might force people to obey laws, but it could also stymie creativity in finding ways to enhance integration, whereas education could truly change attitudes” (180). Brown understood that Nugent wanted education to enhance and disrupt the older image of students with disabilities. Forcing schools to follow a strict set of rules would only limit the growth of disabled students.

One of the problems that needed to be overcome by DRES was the ability for students with disabilities to receive access to technologies at the University of Illinois. According to Expanding Horizons, “DRES has obtained several grants to initiate the development of a distributed network of assistive computer technology that may be used in dormitories or class areas” (31). These innovations have enabled DRES students to become visible on their own terms because the students would not be forced to receive the technology that was only provided at a rehab center. This provides the students with a choice to access the technology around the campus. More options in public area provides visibility in public spaces with their fellow peers.

Annotated Bibliography

Anderson, Bethany. “Heinz von Foerster and the Biological Computer Laboratory: A Cybernetics Odyssey.” Exhibits, University of Illinois Archives, 6 December 2016, https://archives.library.illinois.edu/blog/heinz-von-foerster-and-the-bcl/.

            The purpose of this blog is to inform the reader about the history of Heinz von Foerster and the creation of the Biological Computer Laboratory. Bethany Anderson is a blogger for the University of Illinois Archives. She has written other blogs on the website. The audience intended for this blog is undergraduates and graduate students of the University of Illinois. The style in this blog is intended to create a story about Heinz von Foerster and his push for the BCL.

Andreessen, Marc. “Why Andreessen Horowitz Is Investing in Rap Genius.” Genius, 2020, https://www.genius.com/Marc-andreessen-why-andreessen-horowitz-is-investing-in-rap-genius-annotated. 

            The purpose of website is to explain why the author is investing in the website Rap Genius. Marc Andreessen is an entrepreneur and investor in tech companies and other firms. The audience intended for this website is for entrepreneurs and people interested in tech companies. He explains his reasoning for investing in the website. The style shows excitement for investing in the website.

Bitzer, Donald. “Use of CBE for the Handicapped.” American Annals of the Deaf, Gallaudet University Press, 1979.

            The purpose of this chapter in American Annals of the Deaf is to inform the reader about the PLATO project’s impact on the handicapped. Donald Bitzer is an electrical engineer that has created a computer-based education system that could help handicapped students. The audience intended for this chapter in American Annal of the Deaf is researchers in technological-based education systems that want to improve the systems meant for the handicapped.

Brown, Steven E. “Breaking Barriers: The Pioneering Disability Students Services Program at the University of Illinois: 1948-1960.” Palgrave Macmillan, 2008.

            The purpose of this source is to inform the reader about the new disability service programs that made the University of Illinois a pioneer in shattering barriers that marginalized people with disabilities. Steven E. Brown is the co-founder of the Institute on Disability Culture. This provides insight into the history and cultural identity of people and students with disabilities. The audience intended for this source would be members of the University of Illinois because the students, faculty, alumni, and administration should learn about this part of Illinois history.

Canales, Jimena. “Mosaic: The First Point-and-Click Internet Browser.” Engine of Illinois Innovation, edited by Frederick E. Hoxie, University of Illinois Press, 2016, pp. 152–158. 

            The purpose of this source is to discuss the point-and-click internet browser known as Mosaic. Jimena Canales has a background in physics and engineering which means she has a good understanding about the browser Mosaic. The audience intended for this source are engineering and tech students interesting in the history of internet browsers and user interfaces.

Commemorative Book Preparation and Publication Committee. Expanding Horizons: A History of the First 50 Years of the Division of Rehabilitation-Education Services at the University of Illinois. Roxford DT Pub., 1998.

            The purpose of this source is to inform the reader about the first fifty years of the Division of Rehabilitation-Education Services (DRES) at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The intended audience for this source would be the scholars of the University of Illinois. The style is intended to educate and inform the reader about historical DRES. There is a bias in this source because it assumes that the time between 1940-50, people only had a negative attitude towards people with disabilities.

Community Health Improvement Plan: Champaign County Illinois. Champaign Regional Executive Committee, 2018. 

            The purpose of this document is to inform the reader about the improvements to the community health plans for the Champaign County. The authors of this document are the members of the Champaign Regional Executive Committee. The members consists of doctors and health experts from Carle, United Way, and other Medical organizations. The audience intended for this document are residents of the champaign community because it plans out the health improvements intended for the people living in Champaign.

“Congressional Record: University of Illinois Centennial” Committee on the Centennial, University of Illinois, 15 October 2009, pp. 73-76.

            The purpose of this record is to inform the Illinois House of Representatives about the international impact the University of Illinois has made. The author of the speech is William L. Springer. He was the House representative for Illinois’s 22nd district. This emphasizes that the author is credible. The intended audience is for the Illinois House of Representatives. The speech was meant for a new policy or legislation. The author’s style is reflected by the intended audience because he tries to inform and persuade the House of Representatives.

Dear, Brian. “Remembering the Future.” PLATO History, PLATO History Foundation, 2010, platohistoy.org/.

            The purpose of this website is to archive the history of the PLATO computer system and the people who built and designed the system. The author, Brian Dear, is a tech entrepreneur and startup mentor that runs the website. This emphasizes that the author has a good understanding in technology and technological systems. This website is meant for tech enthusiasts and students researching about the PLATO computer system.

Evans, Sara M. “Sons, Daughters, and Patriarchy: Gender and the 1968 Generation.” American Historical Review, 2009.

            The purpose of this source is to educate readers about the rise of feminism in the 1960s and discuss the patriarchy. Sara M. Evans is a professor of history at the University of Minnesota. She has a lot of experience in the field which makes her a credible source. The audience for this work is most likely for scholars or professors because she goes into a lot of detail and focuses on writing the history.

Geiger, Roger. The History of American Higher Education: Learning and Culture from the Founding to World War II.Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2015.

            The purpose of this book is to inform the reader about the history of American higher education. Roger Geiger is a Professor of Education at the Pennsylvania State University. This gives him credibility because he is an established researcher and professor at a respected university. The intended audience would be scholars and researchers in education because he is informing the audience about the history of higher education.

Harrison, Chase. “Program on Survey Research.” Harvard University Press, 2007.

            The purpose of this document is to provide readers with tips on wording the questions in a survey or questionnaire. The author, Chase Harrison, is an Associate Director of the Harvard program of Survey Research in the Department of Government. The audience intended for this document are researchers interested in created surveys or questionnaires.

Heer, Jeffrey, et al. “A Tour through the Visualization Zoo.” A Tour through the Visualization Zoo – ACM Queue, Acmqueue, 13 May 2010, queue.acm.org/detail.cfm?id=1805128. 

            The purpose of this website is to give the reader a tour around visualizations that are prevalent in displaying data to people. The authors of this website are researchers at Stanford University. This shows that the participants of this research are respected in their field. The audience intended for this website are data enthusiasts that are interested in the visualization of data for people to understand.

“History of the United States Army School of Military Aeronautics at the University of Illinois Urbana, Illinois.” School of Military Aeronautics, University of Illinois, 1918.

            The purpose of this source is to discuss the history of the School of Military Aeronautics at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The audience intended for this source is scholars and researchers interested in the history of the SMA. The tone of the work focuses on informing the audience about the development of the school at the University of Illinois.

Hoxie, Fredrick E and Michael Hughes. “Nevada Street: A Center for the Study of Race and Ethnicity.” University of Illinois Press, 2017.

            The purpose of this source is to inform the reader about the study of race and ethnicity at Nevada Street. Frederick E. Hoxie is a professor of social and political history. He focused the majority of his research on indigenous people in North America. The audience intended for this work would be students, scholars, and professors researching race and ethnicity in Nevada Street.

Howard, Jessie. “Summary of Replies to the Questions Sent to Illini in Service.” Provost’s Office, 1944.

            The purpose of this questionnaire is to collection information about the Illini in service and understand the replies of the students. Jessie Howard is the man who ran the questionaire and analyzed the data at the end of the source. The audience is researchers and members of the military because it provides important data regarding future plans for students going back to the University of Illinois after the war.

Hutchinson, Jamie. “Heinz Von Foerster and the Biological Computer Laboratory.” “Nerve Center” of the Cybernetic World, http://bcl.ece.illinois.edu/hutchinson/index.htm.

            The purpose of this website is to inform viewers of the website about Heinz Von Foerster and the Biological Computer Laboratory. Jamie Hutchinson is Publications Editor at the Grainger College of Electrical and Computer Engineering. His perspective as an editor provides readers with more information about the Biological Computer Laboratory and its creator. The audience intended for this website is electrical and computer engineering majors.

Johnston, Edward S. “History of the Military Department University of Illinois 1869-1921.” Reserve Officers’ Training Corps, University of Illinois, 1921.

            The purpose of this source is to discuss the history of the military department at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Edward S. Johnston is a professor of Military Science and Tactics at the University of Illinois. His credentials give him the perspective needed to talk about the ROTC. The audience intended for this source is cadets and other undergraduates that are a part of the military at the University of Illinois.

Lamont, Valerie. “New Directions for the teaching Computer: Citizen Participation in Community Planning.” Computer-based Education Research Laboratory, 1973.

            The purpose of this document is to inform readers about an experiment testing the feasibility of using the teaching computer for involving people in community planning. Valerie Lamont is the researcher conducting the experiment. The audience intended for this source are researchers and graduate students interested in the PLATO project and its impact on technological learning.

Metz, Michael. “Radicals in the Heartland: The 1960s Student Protest Movement at the University of Illinois.” University of Illinois Press, 2019.

            The purpose of this source is to discuss the student protests that were occurring at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Michael Metz took part in high tech marketing but he also participated in student protests in the 1960s. His perspective as a student at the university provides the first-hand experience of the protests. The audience intended for this source is most likely students because he uses timelines to help illustrate the movement.

Newby, Greg. “My Prairienet Story.” My Story, 2004, www.petascale.org/prairienet/pnet-gbnstory.html. 

            The purpose of this website is to tell the readers a story about the author’s experience with the Free-Net. Greg Newby was a graduate student at the School of Library and Information Science at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. He provides his readers with a first-hand experience with the Library and Information Science School. The audience intended for this story are graduate students and students in the School of Library and Information Science at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

OECD. “Good Practices in Survey Design Step-by-Step.” Measuring Regulatory Performance: A Practitioner’s Guide to perception Surveys, OCED Publishing, Paris, 2012.

            The purpose of this publication is to discuss good practices that help the quality of results and avoid problems with surveys. OECD is and organization that helps to stimulate economic growth and promotes world trade. The audience intended for this document is researchers that are interested in producing surveys that help to collect data.

Prutzer, Ned. “The BCL and the Cybernetics Moment.” The Biological Computer Laboratory, 20 Jan. 2019, https://scalar.usc.edu/works/the-biological-computer-laboratory/the-bcl-and-the-cybernetics-moment?path=index.

            The purpose of this website is to create an intriguing website that informs the viewers about the Biological Computer Laboratory. Ned Prutzer is a PhD student in Communications and Media at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. His perspective as a PhD student provides research experience on the Biological Computer Laboratory. The audience intended for this website is most likely for PhD students interested in the Biological Computer Laboratory.

Schroeder, Paul. “Why?” The Daily Illini, 15 March 1968.

            The purpose of this speech is to encourage his fellow students to build new education for the future. Paul Schroeder is a representative of the Education Reform Committee. This means he has a good background in educational reform in higher education. The intended audience for this speech is students, faculty, and administration of the University of Illinois. This is reflected by the author’s tone when he encourages all members of the University to join in his desire to reform the education system.

Reagan, Leslie J. “Timothy Nugent: ‘Wheelchair Students’ and the Creation of the Most Accessible Campus in the World.” University of Illinois Press, 2017.

            The purpose of this source is to inform the reader about the creation of DRES and the impact of Timothy Nugent’s vision made serving students with disabilities. Leslie J. Reagan is the author of the source. She is a professor in the Department of History at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Her diplomas and experience as a professor establish her credibility in this field. The audience intended for this source is scholars and historians because she discusses the development of organizations such as DRES.

Smock, Richard, et al. “A Proposal to Encourage Undergraduate Educational Development at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Campus.” Cruel Staff Council, 1972.

            The purpose of this document is to propose appointing an Associate Vice Chancellor for Undergraduate Education at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The authors of this document are Richard Smock, Frank Duff, King Broadrick, and Roland Holmes. They are the Council members representing this proposal to the CRUEL Staff Council. The audience intended for this document is the Staff Council members of CRUEL. The beginning of the document explains that it is for the Staff Council and the wording of the document is phrased for the members.

“Unit One History.” History of Unit One Living-Learning Community, University Housing, 1994, housing.illinois.edu/Living-Options/Living-Learning-Communities/Unit-One/traditions/history. 

            The purpose of this website is to inform students and alumni of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign about the Unit One Living-Learning Community. The audience intended for this website are students, alumni, and professors at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. This is the targetted audience because it talks about the university’s rich history. The website brings up notable Illinois faculty such as Chancellor Jack Pelteson.

Viegas, Fernanda, and Martin Wattenberg. “Design and Redesign.” Medium, Medium, 3 Apr. 2015, https://medium.com/@hint_fm/design-and-redesign-4ab77206cf9. 

            The purpose of this website is to inform and teach the readers about the design and redesign about displaying different forms of data visualization. The authors of the website, Fernanda and Martin, are co-leaders of the People + AI Research (PAIR) initiative. The audience intended for this website are data analyst and data interpreters that are interested in data design.

Weber, Larry. “Blind Student Power.” Technograph, 1968.

            The purpose of this article is to empower blind students and establish more perfect learning conditions for engineering students. Larry Weber is a student that is a part of the university. This is important because it helps the author connect with other students. The audience intended for this article is students because he uses “we the students” as a way to include students in the piece.

Williamson-Lott, Joy Ann. “Black Power on Campus: The University of Illinois.” University of Illinois Press, 2013.

            The purpose of this source is to inform the reader about the impact African Americans made at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Joy-Ann Williamson is a professor of education at the University of Washington. The audience for this source is students and professors because it discusses the history of federal policies intended for racial reconciliation in the 1960s.

Williamson-Lott, Joy Ann. “Clarence Shelley: The Campaign to Diversify the University.” University of Illinois Press, 2017.

            The purpose of this source is to inform the reader about the University’s campaign to diversify the campus. Joy-Ann Williamson is also the author of this source. She is also the Dean of the University of Washington’s Graduate School in the College of Education. The audience intended for this work is for professors and students at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

Yang, Andrew. The War on Normal People: The Truth About America’s Disappearing Jobs. Hachette Books, 2018.

            The purpose of this book is to inform the readers about the causes for the decline in industrial jobs in the United States. Andrew Yang was a democratic presidential candidate who was known for his Universal Basic Income policy. The audience intended for this book is working class Americans in the United States. He targets the working class and explains the causes for the decline in paying jobs.

01 – Lab Reflection + Reading Response

1.) Innovation + Society Lab

I visited both of these locations around noon. The first photo is the ramp between the sidewalk and the street. My neighbors and I use these ramps to help safely and smoothly reach the sidewalk from the street. Wheelchairs, bicycles, wagons, and strollers benefit from these ramps because it creates a bridge for the sidewalk which is higher than the street. The bushes, flowers, and other plants help to make the space pleasant and peaceful. This creates value for people walking by this neighborhood.  These ramps look like they were made out of newer concrete which means this was built recently. I believe that policies were implemented to help people with disabilities independently reach the sidewalk. The ramps help them achieve this goal because wheels have a hard time going through bumpy surfaces. A lot of people interact with this space when they walk their dogs, push their strollers, or pull their wagons. Overall these innovations benefit a lot of people in this neighborhood by improving the transition between the street and sidewalk.

The second photo is the ramp to my garage. It’s meant for vehicles to smoothly enter the building. This building is meant for the storage of vehicles and yard equipment. There’s a ramp that helps the car smoothly reach the sidewalk but there’s a leveling difference between the building and the sidewalk which creates a bump when moving your vehicle into the garage. The end of the sidewalk doesn’t have a ramp that would connect it to the alley. The foundation of the garage looks newer than the sidewalk. This means that the garage is newer than the driveway and sidewalk. Overall the garage fulfills its purpose by providing vehicles protection from weather and storage for tools and other equipment. The interactions I see are usually the cars going into the garage. However, I do see cyclists struggle to get on to the sidewalk from the alley. Adding ramps between the sidewalk and the foundation of the garage would create a smooth transition for the car to enter the garage.

2.) Reading Response + Annotated Bibliography

The idea of the Land Grant is important to President Henry because he knew about the benefits of opening a Land Grant University. The Morill Act indirectly pushed Land Grant Universities to find a way to incorporate mechanical arts (Geiger 307). This act helped to fulfill the industrial and mechanical needs that were demanded by the respective states. According to President Henry, “The complex needs of society have placed new demands upon the University at the advanced levels of education” (“Congressional Record: University of Illinois Centennial” 74). This quote explains that because of the advances in society, the University of Illinois and other Land Grant Universities are obligated to fulfill these needs. The idea of the Land Grant is important to President Henry because he sees the University of Illinois as a place for serving the people.

The Land Grant focused on three intentions placed in the Morrill Act. Wide educational opportunities, comprehensive curricula, and diversification of education services were innovative ideas that Land Grants provided (“Congressional Record: University of Illinois Centennial” 75). Another innovation was its ability to serve the working-class students. According to Roger Geiger, “the institute served Morrell’s industrial classes or, as one Harvadian put it, ‘a class of students who rarely find their way to Cambridge’” (313). Land Grant Universities focused on the education of the industrial and working classes.