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Week 09 – Lab Reflection + Reading Response

Lab Reflection

Transcribe Interview:

How has the constant growth of technology change the way students connect with each other and the world?

“I’ve seen many students in public with their friends, and they are all usually on their phones, rather than speaking to each other. Whereas before the advances of technology, people would normally speak to each other without the use of their phones or social media. Technology has changed students for the better and for the worse” (2:01)

What communication method through technology is the most effective?

“Some time of video chatting, for example zoom, because if students are collaboratively working on a project, they can see what the other students are doing at a certain time, whereas through text or phone call, you can’t see the other person. So through video call, you can understand how the other person is feeling. You can see their emotions, hand signals, etc, and can better understand what another student is trying to communicate.”(2:45-3:30)

Did you ever experience a social change after using a certain technology or social media platform to communicate?

“Using certain social media platforms, I’ve tended to realize that students became more impacted about what other people say about them. People tend to either have negative comments about others when sitting behind a screen because they know nothing will happen to them, whereas in person, people don’t want to negatively comment on someone else’s appearance, and will keep to themselves” (4:15-4:45).

How does technology affect the perception of our needs?

“Technology alters our perception of what we truly need. For instance, on Instagram, you could see a very famous person living a certain lifestyle, and you may feel like you need that, or seeing good looking people and feel that you need to be that certain way” (10:15-10:30).

Reading Response

Part 1:

An example of a possible critique was the student fee that was implemented for funding. “Beginning in 1975, students began paying a modest fee of $15/semester. This fee gradually increased to $45/semester in 1980.” The administration represented this issue to the students who protested the program’s being terminated for fiscal reasons.

A challenge that the program faced from its inception was centered around social and political issues such as race relations, international politics, ideologies of the left and the right, and feminism. The issues raised by these discourses frequently caused students a great deal of discomfort, a logical outcome when freshmen/sophomores’ values are challenged. 

The evolution of Unit One/Allen Hall make visible the academic vulnerabilities of innovation. An example of this was when the feature characteristics of courses such as Community Internships, Women’s Studies, Interpersonal and Black/White Relations were reorganized. They were small class size, seminar format, flexible structure, innovative approaches to subject matter and presentation and student participation in design and content.

Part 2:

Peltason notes the importance of reform at the University of Illinois. His goal is to be a leading institution in Illinois in providing instruction for freshmen and sophomores of the highest quality level. He also articulates that “there is a need for coordinated curriculum development, experimentation, evaluation, and research in undergraduate education. Furthermore, Peltason is emphasizing how departments may restructure their curriculum, causing a domino affect to other departments without them even knowing it. This may bring pressures on the allocation of a student’s time during a semester, and all innovation and experiementation with courses should be evaluated systematically.

Week 08 – Lab Reflection + Reading Response

Part 1: Lab – Interview and Survey Design

I reached out to the two members of NOBE and will update this post after their responses. I am also awaiting a response from the Dr. Turner and Mrs. Newell.

Developing Survey Questions:

How has the constant growth of technology impacted the way students connect with each other and the world?

  • Very positive impact
  • Positive impact
  • No impact at all
  • Negative Impact
  • Very negative impact

What communication method through technology is the most efficient for students?

  • Email
  • Text
  • Snapchat
  • Mobile Call
  • Instagram
  • Other: ________

Did you experience a social change after using a certain technology to communicate?

  • Great amount of social change
  • Decent amount of social change
  • Neutral amount of social change
  • Slight amount of social change
  • Little to no amount of social change

What percentage of students are aided by technology?

  • 100%
  • 80%
  • 60%
  • 40%
  • 20%

What social media platforms do you use and why? (Select all that apply)

  • Twitter
  • Facebook
  • Snapchat
  • Instagram
  • Tik-Tok
  • Linkedin
  • None of the above

How does technology affect our perception of our needs? How does it affect our way of seeing and experiencing the world? (Select all that you agree with)

  • Makes students believe that they have to rely on technology
  • Opens up opportunities for students that must overcome disabilities
  • It doesn’t affect our perception of our needs
  • Diversifies what a student wants versus what he/she needs
  • Can lead students to think that they take more for granted than they thought before

To what extent does technology redefine reality? Does it serve to solidify knowledge or relationships?

  • Certain technologies can question the purpose of life
  • Certain technologies can make or break friendships or relationships
  • Technology solidifies knowledge
  • Technology does not redefine reality
  • Technology will always continue to shape our knowledge of the world

Before COVID, you used technology on a [ ] basis:

  • Hourly
  • Daily
  • Weekly
  • Monthly
  • Yearly

Survey Distribution Leads

Sebastian Dziubek / Student in Engineering / University of Illinois

Matt Perry / Student in Engineering / University of Illinois

Reading Response

The resource Students utilize technology for social good through Hack4Impact from the Daily Illini helps explore how it helps connect students with nonprofits through technology and the impacts that they make on society. The author believes that “this whole idea of social impact and technology needs to be more intertwined in the future to propel nonprofits to do even more social good,” pushing for technology to be utilized to its full potential. The impact that this organization has on social change through will help me pursue the answer to my inquiry. Additionally, they created an educational tool called MapStories “developed as a way to help the newsroom share local history and African American culture in a user-friendly way.” This is a key event that was used to build their story, which eventually allowed them to partner with other nonprofits that wanted to help change the world for good. Furthermore, Hack4Impact will develop a web application to help facilitate the matching of tutors with children in Cambodia who will help the children learn English. The author demonstrates that “the projects they develop not only allow them to learn but also give them meaningful experiences and opportunities to contribute to something beyond this campus,” proving that they make software products to make the world a better place. Another resource Students increase social media use over stay-at-home order from Daily Illini will help explore what can change when a student uses technology more than they did previously in their life. Increased use of social media can social impact many students on campus, positively, or negatively. The article displays what certain social media have done to impact a student. For example, “increased online interaction has highlighted Snapchat as a communication staple for the current students’ generation,” as opposed to mobile text messages. The author also demonstrates how a student uses a social media platform to enhance her business. She notes that “by using Instagram, I can also turn my platform into a business platform, in order to see how many views I have to review how much interest there is in my product.” Not only does the author use example from students, but also includes data on phone usage before, during, and after the pandemic. The report was released by App Annie, a global provider of mobile market data, saying that “phone usage worldwide has gone up by 20% during the COVID pandemic.” This key event was used by the author to build onto their story, as well as another data report later in the article involving a social media marketing tool that provides analytics called NapoleanCat, showing the increase of social media users from February to March, the peak of the pandemic. Overall, both sources provide strong answers to my inquiry through data, statistics, and recent events. They summarize their evidence through this data to further back up the points being made throughout the articles.

5 Takeaways to Integrate to Survey

  1. Test the survey with family or friends for feedback before sending it out to people that will actually participate in the finalized survey.
  2. Make sure the instructions are clear and precise for the reader.
  3. Keep the questionnaire shorter and response options concise. Also consider the order of the questions, as some responses can be impacted by other questions.
  4. Answer choices should anticipate all possibilities because respondents might have more than one answer in mind or may have a hard time deciding.
  5. Ensure that the answers to the questions help meet the objectives of the survey.

These are relevant to me because it’s important that I get clear, accurate, and honest responses to my questions. The odds that people will complete my survey will be maximized if I keep the questions short and clear and all available answers to it. Accuracy will be determined if I avoid suggesting answers from the formulation of my questions.

Week 07 – Lab Reflection + Reading Response

Part 1: Lab – Ethical Research and Best Practices

Interview Questions:

  1. How has the constant growth of technology changed the way students connect with each other and the world?
  2. What communication method through technology is the most efficient? How so?
  3. Did you experience a social change after using a certain technology to communicate?
  4. Before COVID, did you use technology on a daily basis? If so, how often did you use it? If not, why do you decide not to?
  5. Does it replace, or does it aid human beings? How does it affect the quality of our lives?
  6. What social media platforms do you use and why?
  7. How does technology affect our perception of our needs? How does it affect our way of seeing and experiencing the world? (U of I) (Safer App)
  8. To what extent does technology redefine reality? Does it serve to solidify knowledge or relationships?

Interviewees and Survey Distribution Leads:

  1. Daniel Turner – Director – Division of General Studies
  2. Melissa Newel – Director – Undergraduate Affairs/School of Information Sciences
  3. Mirko Janjanin – RSO Leader for National Organization of Business and Engineering
  4. Malik Siddique – RSO Leader for National Organization of Business and Engineering

Reading Response:

PLATO was able to make a big impact on creating a new type of mass communications system in and outside of educational applications. To begin with, this system “consists of a keyset which the student uses to ‘talk’ to the computer and a display screen which the computer uses to ‘talk’ to the student” (Weber). By allowing the system to communicate with a student who is blind, it could potentially change and reshape how many other students with a similar disability can still learn properly. Additionally, “there are over 3,000 authors who generate new lesson material” on the University of Illinois PLATO system (Bitzer). These authors cover many lesson materials involving key subjects such as mathematics and English, and certain courses in the CBE (Computer Based Education for the Handicapped) have been developed to directly or indirectly aid the handicapped. Additionally, to develop tactile speech recognition, PLATO’s auditory disk was used to verbalize words and phrases which were then converted into touch patterns through a sensory aid. The students “learned that ‘new language’ of time-varying vibration patterns” and was then checked by PLATO for feedback and responses (Bitzer). The flexibility of its hardware and adaptability of its software opened new approaches in this area. Another application to PLATO is for teaching people who are blind. This can be made possible because “the computer reads the written text normally displayed on the computer terminal by speaking through a voice synthesizing unit,” making it possible for a blind user to interact with a computer in an efficient way (Bitzer). Lastly, since the PLATO system had a number of extra keys with different functions to control the computer compared to a normal one, a design to enhance PLATO was a seven key device called a Perkins Brailler. It was evident that “with this device, there was no question as to the ability of most students to operate it with ease” (Weber). In designing an educational system, a major portion of the work naturally had to come from the social sciences.

Even though PLATO may not be as efficient as a teacher, “computerized teaching machines should be looked at as tools to alleviate the shortage of teachers for the blind” (Weber). Many online platforms offer education such as Khan Academy, but won’t be much help to a blind student who cannot see the screen display. The major difference between PLATO and other online frameworks is accessibility because students are very limited to options on the PLATO system. Another difference is that since there were many bugs about the system, a student from the hardware-software group who could control the computer through a standard keyset, would watch over the blind student to ensure that the errors could be corrected.

Week 06 – Lab Reflection + Reading Response

Part 1: Lab – Online Search & Project Development

Primary and Secondary Resources:

In order to answer my question on how technology has shaped communication within students, I need to find out how technology can be utilized to influence social change. The resource “Students utilize technology for social good through Hack4Impact” helps explore how it helps connect students with nonprofits through technology and the impacts that they make on society.

In order to answer my question on how technology has shaped communication within students, I need to find out how certain communication methods through technology change the way students interact with one another. The resource “The Role of Communication Technology in Adolescent Relationships and Identity Development” helps explain the impact that technology and communication methods have on students.

In order to answer how communication between undergraduate students at the University of Illinois has changed over time through the innovation of technology, I need to find out how students are taught to use technology. The resource “It doesn’t matter what is in their Hands” helps explore what impacts technology provided by an institution has on a student’s academic efficiency as well as their social interaction.

In order to answer my question on the social impact that technology has on students at the University of Illinois, I need to find out how increased use of technology is a factor of the social impact. My source “Students increase social media use over stay-at-home order” will help explore what can change when a student uses technology more than they did previously in their life.

Other resources I can use that will help with my research are newspapers, experiments, and interviews. For example, I could interview alumni that have experienced the progression of technology since their years in college. My research would be relevant to campus or community leaders because by understanding how the means of communication between undergraduate students at an institution changed over time through the innovation of technology, and what social impact has it had since previous years.

Drafting Interview & Survey Questions

  1. Before COVID, did you use technology on a daily basis? If so, how often did you use it? If not, why do you decide not to?
  2. What communication method through technology is the most efficient? How so?
  3. Did you experience a social change after using a certain technology to communicate?
  4. What social media platforms do you use and why?
  5. How has the constant growth of technology changed the way students connect with each other and the world?

Reading Response

Heinz von Foerster and members of the BCL used specific strategies to develop cybernetics practice. The first strategy implemented was after he established ‘second order cybernetics.’ Shortly after he did this, “he established the Biological Computer Laboratory in 1958 as a center for the study of the computational principles in living organisms” (Anderson).

The second strategy is that a member of BCL, Andrew Pickering, who “presents the emphasis on biological computing within cybernetics during the 1950s and 1960s as a productive alternative to modern technoscience” (Prutzer). He focuses on British cyberneticians to reflect the omission of von Foerster’s and the BCL’s work within cybernetics literature.

The final strategy was that Von Foerster made an attempt to keep BCL alive by submitting a proposal to the National Science Foundation entitled, “Cognitive Technology.” The purpose of this proposal “drew on campuswide expertise in cognitive theory, educational psychology, linguistics, computer networks, programming, and multimedia” (Hutchinson).

4 Questions:

  1. Were the obstacles of the formation of BCL difficult to overcome? How did you overcome them?
  2. What other work is involved in the BCL besides cybernetics?
  3. The BCL, with little to no university support for its highly interdisciplinary work, was unable to sustain itself without funding. How did it manage to continue its legacy?
  4. Are BCL innovations considered more social or technical? Why is one more common than the other?

Week 05 – Lab Reflection + Reading Response

Lab – University Archive Visit Report:

2 Questions:

  • How have the means of communication between undergraduate students at UofI changed over time through the innovation of technology?
  • What social impact has technology had since the 19th century?

This question is not answerable with a simple yes or no, but rather requires synthesis and analysis of ideas and sources prior to the composition of an answer. Using the University of Illinois digital collections, I will be able to understand how different technologies have impacted students positively and negatively. My search terms will be “technology”, “innovation”, and “communication”.

Lab Assignment + Reflection

4 Screenshots that can help provide answers to my research question:

#1: This picture provides the abstract of an analysis of the use of the Internet with observation and interviewing. It also displays how data and numbers were also used by different methods and approaches. These materials are relevant to students because it provides research and statistics. This will help me further determine how the use of different technologies affected communication. Source:http://hdl.handle.net/2142/79612

#2: These two pictures demonstrate data taken from the digital collections that show the purpose of students’ use of technology through email and factors that drive students not to use this kind of technology. I can support my question with this kind of evidence because it provides a bias from a student’s perspective. Furthermore, this can be relevant to students as they can see data that shows certain factors that drive a student to use a certain technology. Source:http://hdl.handle.net/2142/79612

#3: This image provides results to questions that can relate to or even support my own question. The page numbers provided after each question will allow me to briefly find specific answers to my question and also raise other questions that I didn’t think of previously. A concern that may arise is determining how one communication impacted students one way, versus how another did not impact students at all. Source:http://hdl.handle.net/2142/79612

#4: This picture explains the focus and purpose of the use of Internet-based communication. It shows that different communication methods were used as part of the research to determine how often they are used and their effectiveness. The only concerns that I would have for these results are inaccurate data or misinformation, but with enough evidence, this source will provide answers to my inquiry. Source:http://hdl.handle.net/2142/79612

Developing Line of Inquiry:

Through interview data, survey data, and library-archive materials provided in my source, I will be able to answer and even build off of my questions. As I read through my source, I found that much of the research involved interviews with students which then gathered data to prove which technologies anticipate efficiency.

Reading Response:

I liked how Andrew Yang incorporated the quote “The future is already here—it’s just unevenly distributed” by William Gibson at the beginning of chapter three. It demonstrates the first point Yang makes about families with different incomes and how people question their normality. He makes a note that “What feels normal to each of us is based on our context” and uses college students or graduates education as examples (Yang Chapter 3). He displayed a chart of different genders and races and the percentages of how high they get to their education on average. This data allowed me to understand where I stand from an educational point of view and where being normal is on the spectrum. Yang also helps me connect to my friends’ context and how “the odds of them all being college graduates if you took a random sampling of Americans would be about one-third of 1 percent, or 0.0036. The likelihood of four or more of them being college graduates would be only about 4 percent,” (Yang Chapter 3). This further addresses how Yang uses numbers and percentages to clarify his point.

Andrew Yang further demonstrates data and statistics when he talked about the net worth of Americans with a certain degree in education. I noticed a trend that net worth goes up with age, but other factors like gender and race cause uneven distribution. According to the U.S Census, for average Americans with high school diplomas or some college, the median net worth hovers around $36,000, including home equity. Normally it would go up with more education, but with the data provided on the median net worth and assets of people with different backgrounds, “the racial disparities are dramatic, with black and Latino households holding dramatically lower assets across the board and whites and Asians literally having 8 to 12 times higher levels of assets on average” (Yang Chapter 3). The evidence to this is presented from the Survey of Income and Program Participation and led me to interpret the message that Yang is anticipating to the audience.

Yang’s evidence also relates to and even questions our humanity. He talks about how most people don’t even like their jobs, especially right after they graduate. Additionally, he uses numbers and percentages to explain his point, and “According to Gallup, only 13 percent of workers worldwide report being engaged with their jobs. The numbers are a little better in America, with 32 percent saying they were engaged with their work in 2015” (Yang Chapter 7). This changed my perspective on the rarity that you’ll meet someone who actually likes their job. Normally I wouldn’t think that I’d struggle to find work that I am excited about, unless if I have financial goals and pressures to meet. Even though I haven’t graduated college yet, I am already thinking of careers that I’d like to pursue, but now I’m also thinking about the position I’m in versus the position that the rest of the nation is in. Yang also states that “the relationship between humanity and work involves money, but in something of a negative correlation,” and how the jobs and roles that are the most human tend to pay lower than other jobs (Yang Chapter 7). By using statistics and data, Yang is not only able to display a message to the reader, but also changed my own perspective on the bigger things in life.

Week 04 – Lab Reflection + Reading Response

  1. Global Leaders: Orange and Blue Engagement (GLOBE) is an organization at the University of Illinois that encourages all international students to become better leaders that they have the potential to be. It’s designed as two groups: Blue members (experienced domestic and international students) and Orange members (new international students). The organization teams them up in small groups to participate with one another in certain activities and events. The sole purpose of GLOBE is to provide domestic and international students a chance to develop their networking skills to prepare them for life after college. It also gives them an opportunity to develop global awareness and learn the importance of cultural diversity. This program works well with the institutional system because there are many international students that attend the University. As related to socio-historical contexts, its function is to integrate international students to the school to address the needs of diversity and cultural competency.
  2. As outlined in the strategic plan of the University of Illinois, “the goal of GLOBE is to provide opportunities for domestic and international students to enhance intercultural communication skills.” The data on the percentage of international students was most likely used to implement this program. Many international students have aspirations to be a part of a prestigious institution, so this could have been a factor in creating a program that enhances these students coming from overseas.
  3. Research: To provide evidence for the needs that the program addresses, I need data that shows what kind of impact a program like this could actually make on international students that would like to further diversify their culture. Both documents demonstrate an international student’s experience with GLOBE and how they’ve established close relationships with friends that they never thought they would.

Document 1: https://dailyillini.com/features/2018/10/16/program-connects-international-and-domestic-students/

Document 2: https://drahcir62.wixsite.com/abelveraportafolio/copy-of-peruvian-sa-uiuc

3 Questions:

How has GLOBE changed your perspective on cultures displayed here vs. the ones that you are used to from your country?

What challenges do international or domestic students face that GLOBE is able to centralize?

Is this program an effective way of growing an international student’s social interaction and involvement?

3 Multiple Choice Questions:

Approximately what percentage of students at the University of Illinois are from another country?

  • 10%
  • 15%
  • 25%
  • 35%
  • 50%
  • 75%
  • 85%

Six semesters after the initiation of GLOBE, how many students apply to the program?

  • 100 to 200
  • 300 to 400
  • 400 to 500
  • 600 to 700
  • 800 to 1000
  • 1000+

How competitive is it to become a member of GLOBE?

  • Not competitive
  • A little competitive
  • 50-50
  • Competitive
  • Very Competitive
  • Extremely Competitive

A barrier this program faces is the number of Blue members, the ones with experience on campus, that they have. These members are sometimes overwhelmed by the number of Orange members, the incoming international students, that they have come into the program. This is what makes the program competitive to get into, but no one has opposed the idea of creating a better cultural diversity to the University of Illinois.

The program needs more Blue students because there are many incoming students that would love to be a part of it, and the Blue students have to accommodate the Orange students. I believe if students are introduced to the program as early as possible, it would immensely help the numbers in the Blue Group.

Reading Response

As diverse concerns spread across UIUC and other college campuses, there were many students and campus groups that used a strategy to display those concerns and make change. Many of these strategies had to overcome barriers, many of them being social and political. The Clabaugh Act was a factor that grew campus antiwar activities, a strategy that pressed for change. The president of the campus SDS “announced a Vietnam War ‘speak out’ to be held at a space identified as a ‘Free Speech Area’ off the quad” to practice these rights (Metz 45). The purpose of the speak out was to coincide with nationwide antiwar rallies, and a barrier that this group had to overcome was debating the student senate request for support in their call for the Clabaugh repeal.

Berkey, a student from California, also came up without a thoughtful strategy to create change from a political perspective. His political action began “with participation in a sit-in at the U.S Attorney’s office in San Fransisco, demanding federal protection for civil rights workers in the South” and used this as a strategy to create change (Metz 46). He eventually became a leader of the Illinois student movement, but a barrier he had to deal with was criticism after admitting that “he had actually missed the Free Speech Movement at Berkeley by a semester” (Metz 46).

Women used student-led uprisings as a strategy to provide them access to higher education. Although it came with barriers, “their presence in public, high politicized settings with a strongly egalitarian ethos opened up unprecedented possibilities for personal freedom” and gained status through male leaders (Evans 338). These women brought social and political messages to the public, which had a very positive effect on personal liberation for young women. Their challenge to patriarchy “broke the rules[…] Parents worried not only for their daughters’ safety but also their reputations,” as a result (Evans 338). As they redefined womanhood by partaking in roles that normally men would take, their expectations were set a lot higher as a barrier to their strategy.

5 Questions

  1. What student-led group in the 1960s proved to be the most effective? Why?
  2. Did your political standpoint change your perspective on these movements? How so?
  3. What student group at UIUC made the most impact on women’s rights?
  4. How much did Freedom of Speech play a factor in students willing to reform their campus in the 1960s?
  5. Although many women have jobs now that back then men would normally have, do women still deal with political barriers?

Week 03 – Lab Reflection + Reading Response

Lab Assignment + Reflection

I observed a couple of strategies and services that DRES uses to address barriers of representation for people with disabilities today. As I watched the tour, I observed that the DRES facility has a lot to offer such as scholarships, social groups for interaction, and academic coaching for organizational skills. These all benefit the students because the scholarships will allow them to have a chance to get an education, the social groups will better the students with interacting with other students, and the academic coaching will ensure that the student is prepared and organized for a good education. The DRES building and physical designs emphasize how it was made possible for these students. DRES offered first fixed-route busses that were designed with wheelchair lifts. There was also a gym with enhanced equipment to make sure the students are doing the proper physical exercise. There were also elevators designed for wheelchair students who couldn’t reach the normal buttons, so they innovated a way to lower the buttons and allow students in wheelchairs to kick the button if they need to. The National Wheelchair Basketball Association is an example of one of the interdisciplinary partnerships that DRES collaborated with because it started with Tim Nugent organizing the first tournament which led to the foundation of the NWBA. It stood out to me and played a big role in inspiring women with disabilities to be able to participate as well.

3 Photos:

3 Memorable Quotes:

“Our diversity is our strength-DRES students represent the entire spectrum of psychological and neurodiversity.”

“Success never rests. On your worst days, be good. On your best days, be great. And on every other day, get better.”

“I don’t need easy. I just need possible.”

I think that two challenges DRES will face in the future is funding and facilities that introduce a similar strategy like DRES (prosthetics for example).

Reading Response

The authors in this week’s readings display how a campus can be diversified successfully and the steps that need to be taken. I believe these authors have made a similar impact to the DRES facility by making all types of students with different backgrounds comfortable, especially at the University of Illinois. With federal financial support and pressure to adopt affirmative action plans, universities began to develop affirmative action programs. To disrupt barriers to push for innovations in inclusion and diversity, Williamson demonstrated how “The initiation of SEOP boosted Black student confidence in the administration, though the students remained wary of procedures for recruitment and program development” (Williamson 57). The SEOP program promoted diversity, and against the backdrop of the Civil Rights Movement, Illinois began discussing how to increase the number of black students at the University. Additionally, the imbalance of minority student enrollment because of discrimination had to be fixed, and the SEOP committee made sure the university would take measures to end discrimination. Williamson and I would argue that these innovations furthered inclusion and diversity on campus today

In the summer of 1965, “Illinois inaugurated an experimental program both to promote equal educational opportunity and to investigate the academic needs of students, particularly Black students, from disadvantaged high schools” (Williamson 62). The school recognized that even though they met university admission requirements, they will encounter academic difficulties because of their old environments. This strategy helped shape the way African Americans were treated and intensified diversity on campus today.

A strategy to further diversify the campus was La Casa Cultura. The purpose of this was to include bilingual students who descended from Latino families who were either citizens in the United States or immigrants from Latin America. “La Casa Cultura Latina opened its doors in 1974 and set out to provide a home for Latino students and to spread awareness of Latino cultures across the campus” (Hoxie 221). I believe this was a great strategy, but there were still problems with funding, and was forced to rely on one doctoral student after it was created. Renewed student activism seemed to be the only tactic that would produce results.

Annotated Bibliography

Geiger, Roger. The History of American Higher Education: Learning and Culture from the Founding to World War II.Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2015. 

This book informs the reader about higher education, including interpretations of the Morrill Land Grant. Roger Geiger is a credible author and source from Penn. State University. His research at a high-level institution gives him a wide range of credibility, intending to teach scholars who are studying education. His pin-point ideas about education were straightforward. 

“Congressional Record: University of Illinois Centennial” Committee on the Centennial, University of Illinois, 15 October 2009, pp. 73-76. 

David Henry interprets the ambition that is driven into students at the university and other land-grant universities and delivered a speech as the President of the University of Illinois that drove innovation. From there, he thanks the innovations of his superiors while looking toward the future, clarifying the significance of university education and pushing toward the growth of the University for it to sustain these goals and promises of career preparation and an incentive to be successful. 

Schroeder, Paul. “Why?” The Daily Illini, 15 March 1968. Paul encourages students and the University of Illinois to build new education for the future. He is a representative of the Education Reform Committee, meaning he has a good background in educational reform in higher education. He wrote this speech towards students, faculty, and administration through his own innovation. This is reflected by the author’s tone when he encourages all members of the University to join in his ambition to rebuild the education system in Illinois.

Leslie J. Reagan, “Timothy Nugent: ‘Wheelchair Students’ and the Creation of the Most Accessible Campus in the World,” in The University of Illinois: Engine of Innovation, edited by Frederick E. Hoxie

The main purpose of this source is the innovation of Tim Nugent on pushing for a better environment for students with disabilities. Its intended audience is the general public, but also to major institutions that still need to implement a better learning environment for students with disabilities. The author, Leslie Reagan, is a well-known professor here at the University of Illinois, making her a credible source. She makes the conclusion that DRES students deserve more accountability and encouragement, as displayed from Tim Nugent.

Steven E. Brown, “Breaking Barriers: The Pioneering Disability Students Services Program at the University of Illinois: 1948-1960,” in The History of Discrimination in US Education, edited by Eileen H. Tamura (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008)

The main purpose of this source is to inform the reader of the discrimination of students with disabilities. Brown writes, teaches, talks, and brings life to the mission of the organization he co-founded, the Institute on Disability Culture, which promotes pride in the history, activities, and cultural identity of individuals with disabilities throughout the world.

Chapter 3: Joy Ann Williamson-Lott, Black Power on Campus: The University of Illinois, 1965-75. Champaign: University of Illinois Press, 2013

Pages 77 – 84: Joy Ann Williamson-Lott, “Clarence Shelley: The Campaign to Diversify the University” in The University of Illinois: Engine of Innovation, edited by Frederick E. Hoxie

Joy Ann Williamson-Lott is a professor of the history of education at the University of Washington College of Education, making her a credible source. Her primary research examines the relationship between social movements and institutions of higher education. Her book on the University of Illinois deciphers the interaction between students and administrators that created the successful support systems which are made possible on today’s college campuses.

Pages 219 – 223: Frederick E. Hoxie and Michael Hughes, “Nevada Street: A Center for the Study of Race and Ethnicity,” in The University of Illinois: Engine of Innovation, edited by Frederick E. Hoxie

Frederick Hoxie is a professor emeritus at the University of Illinois and was a former professor of history, law, and American Indian Studies. His current research focuses on indigenous political activism in the United States. He is a credible source because he is trained as a social and political historian and served at Illinois for fifteen years.

Pages 32 – 81: Michael Metz, Radicals in the Heartland: The 1960s Student Protest Movement at the University of Illinois, U. of Illinois Press, 2019.

Michael V. Metz gives an insightful and informational analysis of events that shaped each year of the 1960s at the University of Illinois Champaign-Urbana campus. He took part in the student movement and wrote about the activism and courage of the students. He is a credible source because he made the information possible by interviews, archives, and newspaper records to show a movement in demands for free speech, inspired by a movement for civil rights.

Sara M. Evans. (2009) Sons, Daughters, and Patriarchy: Gender and the 1968 Generation. American Historical Review. 

Sara Evans is a professor in the history department at the University of Minnesota. She has also worked as the editor of Feminist Studies. The purpose of her writing is to inspire women to feel confident about themselves and to encourage them to use their freedom of speech. Through her efforts, she has helped to establish the University of Minnesota as a major center for women’s history and women’s studies. She is also recognized as a leader in feminist scholarship.

Chapters 3 – 7, Yang, Andrew. The War on Normal People: The Truth About America’s Disappearing Jobs. Hachette Books: 2018.

Andrew Yang is an entrepreneur and former Presidential candidate. His source is credible and it uses different types of evidence involving numbers, data, and proven statistics from the past to present. According to his biography, Yang also wants to expand access to mental health services, advocating for an increase in providers working in rural areas, requiring insurance companies to give providers an incentive to use AI for more efficient healthcare. Reading his text provided me with a different point of view and gave me key information on how to make use of data and statistics.

Ned Prutzer, The Biological Computer Laboratory

Ned Prutzer is a PhD student in Communications and Media at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. He is a credible source as he earned his Master’s degree in Communication, Culture and Technology and received his Bachelor’s degree in English and American Studies. His research focuses on the intersections of new media and cultural memory in relation to conceptualizations of art, knowledge, and resistance. The purpose of his writing portrays the innovation of technology.

Jamie Hutchinson, “Nerve center of the cybernetic world: Heinz von Foerster and the Biological Computer Laboratory.”

Jamie Hutchinson is a publications editor at UIUC. This source helps to explore connections between these four individuals—Heinz von Foerster, W. Ross Ashby, Warren McCulloch, and Norbert Wiener—and to better understand how they influenced each other and the context in which their ideas evolved. It will also enable us to shed light on hidden connections between documentation within their research archives. I believe this source is credible after analyzing the significance of cybernetics.

Bethany Anderson, “Heinz von Foerster and The Biological Computer Laboratory: A Cybernetics Odyssey,” (https://archives.library.illinois.edu/blog/heinz-von-foerster-and-thebcl/) University of Illinois Archives blog

Bethany Anderson is a University of Illinois Archives faculty member who talks about the story of Heinz von Foerster and how he developed the BCL throughout his career. She is credible because she includes many different examples and pictures that displayed his work and the impact that it had on the University. Over nearly two decades the BCL created a unique interdisciplinary research space for cybernetics.

Brian Dear, PLATO History Blog

Brian Dear is a credible source that talks about the history of the PLATO computer system. He justifies each of his stories and articles on how it has impacted the community as well as students across the nation. He also uses pictures and data to add to his website to reveal more of what shaped PLATO and its accessible features.

Don Bitzer, “Use of CBE for the Handicapped,” American Annals of the Deaf 124.5 (1979)

Bitzer was a professor at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign when he was asked to build a computerized learning system. The result was PLATO, a networked and interactive teaching system that introduced online concepts. He is a credible source because he made a career of improving classroom productivity and education by using computer technology.

Pages 149-162: Valerie Lamont, “New Directions for the Teaching Computer: Citizen Participation in Community Planning, ”Technological Forecasting and Social Change5 (1973)

Pages 17-20: Larry Weber, “Blind Student Power,” Technograph (October 1968)

Larry Weber is the Chairman & CEO of Racepoint Global, an advanced marketing services agency, a well-known expert in PR and marketing services, and an author, making him a credible source. According to his biography, Larry enjoys helping global brands and emerging companies harness social media strategies to enhance brand reputation, create and extend partnerships, and increase demand generation.

Harvard U Program on Survey Research: Tip Sheet on Question Wording

This source justifies ways to enhance the creation of a survey. It includes other sources that provide examples of other common and pre-existing surveys and pinpoints specific strategies that will make the survey better. I trust this source and its knowledge because it comes from the prestigious Harvard University and portrays exactly how questions should be worded and how concise answers should be to them.

OECD (2012), “Good Practices in Survey Design Step-by-Step”, in Measuring Regulatory Performance: A Practitioner’s Guide to Perception Surveys, OECD Publishing, Paris.

This source informs the reader through sequential, step-by-step guidance that can be used to design a perception survey. It provides advice on how to define survey objectives and the target group, create survey questions, editing and re-evaluating a questionnaire, determine respondents and data collection methods, how to run the survey, and analyze the results. It’s important to know all this before conducting a real survey that will be used for research to improve the quality of results and avoiding obstacles.

Allen Hall History (1994)

Unit One is an academic program located in Allen Hall and is a part of the University of Illinois Residence Hall system. Unit One is co-sponsored by the Vice Chancellors for Academic and Student Affairs. The goal of Unit One is to provide an enriched academic program that also addresses the personal and developmental needs of its students while providing challenges and alternatives that are not usually available to lower division undergraduates at the University. In 1983, the Council on Program Evaluation (COPE) issued its evaluation of UNIT ONE’s three year reorganization.

Proposal to Encourage Undergraduate Education Development at UIUC (1972)

This proposal is a letter from Richard Smock, Frank Duff, King Broadrick, and Roland Holmes to the Staff Council of the University of Illinois, in March 1972. This letter seeks to reform the current policies and curriculums created at the University of Illinois. The goal is to create new structural changes that reflect the high priority placed on undergraduate education.

Week 02 – Lab Reflection + Reading Response

Lab Reflection:

Questions:

How has communication evolved over time?

Has student fashion changed? What has depicted student fashion?

Line of Inquiry:

In order to answer these questions, I must source evidence from the past that connects one or even both of my questions. A lot has changed from the 1900s, but it’s important to understand how students have grown over technology and innovation of new fashion. Back then, it wasn’t as easy to meet with your friends on campus because communication was not as strong, especially during the war. Additionally, students do not wear the same clothes that they’ve worn in the past.

4 Pieces of Evidence:

According to the video Changing Communications | Student Life, it was shown that in the early days, “mail proved to be the most popular way of reaching out” to other students or even family and friends (0:16-0:24). I chose this video because I couldn’t imagine what it would be like if we continued to use the same mailing strategy today. Mailing takes a lot more time to deliver in comparison to newer technology that involves texting or voice calls. Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=1&v=velIPeyseXU&feature=emb_logo

After watching the video Changing Communications | Student Life to the end, I discovered that “over the years, telephones proliferated from offices, to private homes, to public areas, to everyone’s hand” (1:37-1:49). This proves that the innovation of the telephone affected communication between everybody and made things a lot easier, compared to when they constantly had to read through newspapers and kiosks. Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=1&v=velIPeyseXU&feature=emb_logo

The video on Changing Student Fashions | Student Life brought to life what students wore back in the day and how they styled their hair. It was proven from the video how their style was transformed from “luxurious beards of the 19th century, to flowing dreads in the 21st century” (0:13-0:18). How did this trend necessarily start? Was it based on other peoples’ opinions, or did they do it to their own liking? After finding out that newly enrolled men would shave their mustache as a norm, the student newspaper of 1881 claimed that “this wholesale slaughter of mustaches must be stopped” again changing how men shaped their look. Overall, hairstyle and facial hair has definitely changed from the past. Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=2&v=wc2AdQqboeI&feature=emb_logo

This photo demonstrates how The U.S Navy strategically found a way to communicate during the way by using balloons that would lift soldiers into the sky to locate the other country’s position. They recruited the Department of Engineering from the University of Illinois to “design an instrument that measured the tension of kite balloons,” to communicate to one another where an enemy could be.

Analysis:

I observed that student life was not as easy as it is now. Compared to the past, we now have almost every resource we need: from smartphones that allow us to find everything, to computers that let us explore the web. I learned that many students faced struggles that pushed people to be more innovative and invent things such as the telephone that would positively impact the students on campus. Additionally, the newspaper tested a man’s ego after they wrote that they must eliminate the clean shave look after it became a tradition.

I discovered that communication and fashion from the past has evolved greatly over time, transforming the world in a positive way. My analysis shows that communication was a key part to students success and continues to be today. Student fashion was driven by the students themselves and I think it’s important that a student should have the right to dress in their own way, regardless of criticism. Although I could do more research, the evidence showed what impact the varies types of communication has had in the past and how useful it is to have good communication resources.

Reading Response:

Nugent and the DRES Community used different strategies to disrupt the dominant image of disability. According to Reagan, ” Nugent created a climate that welcomed disabled students and a program that drew them into the campus mainstream while providing spaces where a separate community of their own could nurture and support them” (Raegan 51). This strategy encouraged to overcome barriers in order to institute DRES. Many students who were in wheelchairs felt they had no incentive to overcome their adversity, but their reputation was set at a high standard by DRES. Both Nugent and the students themselves understood that the “image and reputation of students with disabilities as independent, intelligent, and socially integrated” was important for both Nugent and the student’s own success (Raegan 51). Students with disabilities did not realize at the time how important they were to the university’s innovative program. As a matter of fact and according to Raegan, they created it. “Tim Nugent regularly credited students and, from the beginning, recognized that the disabled kids influenced the program’s directions” which was another way that Nugent pushed for the DRES community. Not only did this inspire more students, but the passion that he had for this program made innovation more common not only to the University but to the entire world.

The fact that in the last two centuries, many people didn’t believe in people with disabilities, pushing them out of the world, which is heartbreaking. Nugent made a tremendous effort by battling “prevalent negative social attitudes, university bureaucracy, and an inaccessible environment” to better prepare those with disabilities (Brown 165). Thankfully to Nugent and his aspiration to make a better environment for the DRES community, this resulted in the Illinois program becoming an oasis for wheelchair students that treated them like any other student. This allowed for these students to become visible on their own terms after the author argued how “quadriplegics went from the hospital to a nursing home. Now they have the opportunity to move onto campus” for a better education and even better support system (Brown 171).

Pages 50 – 59: Leslie J. Reagan, “Timothy Nugent: ‘Wheelchair Students’ and the Creation of the Most Accessible Campus in the World,” in The University of Illinois: Engine of Innovation, edited by Frederick E. Hoxie

Pages 165 – 187: Steven E. Brown, “Breaking Barriers: The Pioneering Disability Students Services Program at the University of Illinois: 1948-1960,” in The History of Discrimination in US Education, edited by Eileen H. Tamura (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008)