J H

Week 13 Lab Reflection + Reading Response

Final Project Workshop: 5 Slides

Reading Response- OUTLINE

Introduction:

(Background): Social media and the communication between students have been and continue to evolve since the 19th century.

(Thesis): The University of Illinois has allowed for people and students to systematically communicate over time, from protesting, to debates, to advanced technology. Many social media platforms are considered sociotechnical systems that people use on a daily basis. These specific platforms may take over a student’s life over time and can affect social interaction within students, especially at the University of Illinois.

Body:

(Data Archives):

https://20macs265.communitydataclinic.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/11/Campus-Protests.pdf

This resource on student protests from the 19th century provides background on how important political and economical debates were communicated in our past.

The resource Students utilize technology for social good through Hack4Impact from the Daily Illini helps explore how it helps connect students with nonprofits through technology and the impacts that they make on society. The author believes that “this whole idea of social impact and technology needs to be more intertwined in the future to propel nonprofits to do even more social good,” pushing for technology to be utilized to its full potential. The impact that this organization has on social change through will help me pursue the answer to my inquiry. Additionally, they created an educational tool called MapStories “developed as a way to help the newsroom share local history and African American culture in a user-friendly way.” This is a key event that was used to build their story, which eventually allowed them to partner with other nonprofits that wanted to help change the world for good.

(Data from Interview):

“I’ve seen many students in public with their friends, and they are all usually on their phones, rather than speaking to each other. Whereas before the advances of technology, people would normally speak to each other without the use of their phones or social media. Technology has changed students for the better and for the worse.” (Sebastian 2:01)

My interviewee Sebastian brought to light that social media is great for communication and networking, but also agreed that it is not beneficial for everything that it’s used for.

(Readings):

I can use Yang’s source to explain how technology and social media may have an effect on a student’s engagement to their career in the future. Yang’s evidence relates to and even questions our humanity. He talks about how most people don’t even like their jobs, especially right after they graduate. Additionally, he uses numbers and percentages to explain his point, and “According to Gallup, only 13 percent of workers worldwide report being engaged with their jobs. The numbers are a little better in America, with 32 percent saying they were engaged with their work in 2015” (Yang Chapter 7).

(Survey Data):

Before COVID, you used social media during a normal semester on a [ ] basis:Number of respondents:
Daily33
Hourly17
Monthly1
Not Applicable: did not use social media2
Weekly2
Grand Total55

Based on my pivot tables, a lot of students tend to use social media on a daily basis, although, I was surprised by how many people use it on an hourly basis. Additionally, most people seem to agree that social media platforms create more problems than they solve for students on campus. On the other hand, most students still use social media very often, regardless of how it affects their lives.

This data is valuable to me because I can start to see a trend towards students who agree that social media is problematic and continue to use it. It’s interesting to think about what it would be like if social media didn’t exist in our time because it did not exist back in the 19th century, so a lot has changed since then.

Conclusion:

Summarize all data from beginning to end and restate thesis. Emphasize the importance of the innovation on technology and how it affects the lives of millions.

Week 12 – Lab Reflection + Reading Response

Question: Many social media platforms are considered sociotechnical systems that people use on a daily basis. How might these platforms take over a student’s life over time?

I believe this question will help my research based on the survey results because many of the questions involve social media and it will help me determine how common it is that students use technology and its effect on those students. It will also show me whether or not students actually use these sociotechnical systems too much.

Visualization:

My visualization brings to light that most students agree that social media platforms create more problems than they solve. Additionally, this helps me answer my question because it provides a clear chart on the number of students that understand how socio-technical systems can be a problem. It also provides an irony because even though most students agree that social media causes problems, they continue to use it on a daily basis, as shown in my pivot table from last week.

The chart will support my research and might even bring more questions to the table. After seeing the outcome of the chart, it made me curious about reasons why students use social media as much as they do, even though they see it more as a problem than as a solution. Though there are many students that disagree that social media doesn’t have a negative affect, what reasons might explain why they disagree?

Reading Response:

The Executive Summary overviews the Champaign Urbana Public Health Department’s (CUPHD) efforts to assess and find needs in the communities it serves. They utilized the Mobilizing for Action through Planning and Partnership method (MAPP), which involves contacting local hospitals and service centers and finding out what is needed. The summary then overviews the four main assessments it underwent. These include the Community Health Status Assessment, the Community Themes and Strengths Assessment, the Local Public Health System Assessment, and finally, the Forces of Change Assessment. Lastly, the Summary explains, “Based on the four MAPP assessments, community leaders convened to identify priorities,”. The goal of all of these is to inform the reader of the specific methods the CUPHD is taking to find the needs it will address. Overall, the summary does well for the reader and informs them effectively and comprehensively of the CUPHD’s methods. The summary is trying to communicate that the CUPHD has comprehensive and well-thought-out plans to fix problems the community is facing. It also is able to grant the reader with some clarity on how organizations like the CUPHD run.

Outline

Introduction:

(Background): Social media and the communication between students have been and continue to evolve since the 19th century.

(Thesis): The University of Illinois has allowed for people and students to systematically communicate over time, from protesting, to debates, to advanced technology. Many social media platforms are considered sociotechnical systems that people use on a daily basis. These specific platforms may take over a student’s life over time and can affect social interaction within students, especially at the University of Illinois.

Body:

(Data Archives):

This resource on student protests from the 19th century provides background on how important political and economical debates were communicated in our past.

https://20macs265.communitydataclinic.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/11/Campus-Protests.pdf

The resource Students utilize technology for social good through Hack4Impact from the Daily Illini helps explore how it helps connect students with nonprofits through technology and the impacts that they make on society. The author believes that “this whole idea of social impact and technology needs to be more intertwined in the future to propel nonprofits to do even more social good,” pushing for technology to be utilized to its full potential. The impact that this organization has on social change through will help me pursue the answer to my inquiry. Additionally, they created an educational tool called MapStories “developed as a way to help the newsroom share local history and African American culture in a user-friendly way.” This is a key event that was used to build their story, which eventually allowed them to partner with other nonprofits that wanted to help change the world for good.

(Data from Interview):

“I’ve seen many students in public with their friends, and they are all usually on their phones, rather than speaking to each other. Whereas before the advances of technology, people would normally speak to each other without the use of their phones or social media. Technology has changed students for the better and for the worse.” (Sebastian 2:01)

My interviewee Sebastian brought to light that social media is great for communication and networking, but also agreed that it is not beneficial for everything that it’s used for.

(Readings):

I can use Yang’s source to explain how technology and social media may have an effect on a student’s engagement to their career in the future. Yang’s evidence relates to and even questions our humanity. He talks about how most people don’t even like their jobs, especially right after they graduate. Additionally, he uses numbers and percentages to explain his point, and “According to Gallup, only 13 percent of workers worldwide report being engaged with their jobs. The numbers are a little better in America, with 32 percent saying they were engaged with their work in 2015” (Yang Chapter 7).

(Survey Data):

This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is Screen-Shot-2020-11-09-at-3.04.59-PM-1024x276.png

Based on my pivot table, a lot of students tend to use social media on a daily basis, although, I was surprised by how many people use it on an hourly basis. Additionally, most people seem to agree that social media platforms create more problems than they solve for students on campus. On the other hand, most students still use social media very often, regardless of how it affects their lives.

This data is valuable to me because I can start to see a trend towards students who agree that social media is problematic and continue to use it. It’s interesting to think about what it would be like if social media didn’t exist in our time because it did not exist back in the 19th century, so a lot has changed since then.

Conclusion:

Summarize all data from beginning to end and restate thesis. Emphasize the importance of the innovation on technology and how it affects the lives of millions.

Week 11 – Lab Reflection + Reading Response

Lab/Post Lab

Question: Many social media platforms are considered sociotechnical systems that people use on a daily basis. How might these platforms take over a student’s life over time?

I believe this question will help my research based on the survey results because many of the questions involve social media and it will help me determine how common it is that students use technology and its effect on those students. It will also show me whether or not students actually use these sociotechnical systems too much.

Pivot Table:

Based on my pivot table, a lot of students tend to use social media on a daily basis, although, I was surprised by how many people use it on an hourly basis. Additionally, most people seem to agree that social media platforms create more problems than they solve for students on campus, which correlates to my question above. On the other hand, most students still use social media very often, regardless of how it affects their lives.

This data is valuable to me because I can start to see a trend towards students who agree that social media is problematic and continue to use it. It’s interesting to think about what it would be like if social media didn’t exist in our time because it did not exist back in the 19th century, so a lot has changed since then. My interviewee Sebastian brought to light that social media is great for communication and networking, but also agreed that it is not beneficial for everything that it’s used for.

Reading Response

1. Rap Genius- “built a feature called ‘group annotations’ right into the browser – and it worked great – all users could comment on any page and discussions quickly ensued,” (Andreessen).

2. Rap Genius- “generalize out to many other categories of text… annotate the world,” (Andreessen).

3. PrarieNet- “A Free-Net was a new way for people to communicate with each other online, using the power of the Internet. Many people had realized what a wonderful communications medium their computer was, and had started to rely on the Internet’s many features for all kinds of things.” (Newby).

4. PrarieNet-“Many lives were changed for the better, by using Prairienet to communicate across time and space with other people of similar interests.”

5. Mosaic-“Today we can shut down the browser and admire the HTTP code traffic. We can see every request and response taking place between our computers and many others,”(Canales).

Mosaic was the first widely used point-and-click interface to the internet that changed the lives of many people, especially at the University of Illinois. Before the development of Mosaic, most users could only access the internet with a command-line computer interface, but through new innovative interfaces, we can “gain access to a portal, cross a threshold, or simply peer into a different space while at a safe distance,” (Canales 153). If I were in the room in the early 1990s working with Andreesen, Bina, and other young researchers on Mosaic, I would make sure that Mosaic would be credited with being the application that made the web available to the general public.

Week 10 – Lab Reflection + Reading Response

Re-Designing Visualizations:

Original Visualization:

Link: https://www.visualcapitalist.com/history-of-pandemics-deadliest/

Re-Design of Visual:

My new visualization changes the narrative because it demonstrates how many people a certain disease can infect without the use of vaccines. Although measles is portrayed as the most contagious, COVID-19 remains more infectious because there is a vaccine for measles. Additionally, there are other diseases that have higher chances of infecting more people than COVID-19, but all have a vaccination for them. According to the Infographic website, “The more people are immune to a disease, the less likely it is to proliferate, making vaccinations critical to prevent the resurgence of known and treatable diseases.” Since COVID-19 is new and without a confirmed vaccine, it is harder to create herd immunity for this specific disease until scientists come up with a cure to prevent spread.

Week 09 – Lab Reflection + Reading Response

Lab Reflection

Transcribe Interview:

How has the constant growth of technology change the way students connect with each other and the world?

“I’ve seen many students in public with their friends, and they are all usually on their phones, rather than speaking to each other. Whereas before the advances of technology, people would normally speak to each other without the use of their phones or social media. Technology has changed students for the better and for the worse” (2:01)

What communication method through technology is the most effective?

“Some time of video chatting, for example zoom, because if students are collaboratively working on a project, they can see what the other students are doing at a certain time, whereas through text or phone call, you can’t see the other person. So through video call, you can understand how the other person is feeling. You can see their emotions, hand signals, etc, and can better understand what another student is trying to communicate.”(2:45-3:30)

Did you ever experience a social change after using a certain technology or social media platform to communicate?

“Using certain social media platforms, I’ve tended to realize that students became more impacted about what other people say about them. People tend to either have negative comments about others when sitting behind a screen because they know nothing will happen to them, whereas in person, people don’t want to negatively comment on someone else’s appearance, and will keep to themselves” (4:15-4:45).

How does technology affect the perception of our needs?

“Technology alters our perception of what we truly need. For instance, on Instagram, you could see a very famous person living a certain lifestyle, and you may feel like you need that, or seeing good looking people and feel that you need to be that certain way” (10:15-10:30).

Reading Response

Part 1:

An example of a possible critique was the student fee that was implemented for funding. “Beginning in 1975, students began paying a modest fee of $15/semester. This fee gradually increased to $45/semester in 1980.” The administration represented this issue to the students who protested the program’s being terminated for fiscal reasons.

A challenge that the program faced from its inception was centered around social and political issues such as race relations, international politics, ideologies of the left and the right, and feminism. The issues raised by these discourses frequently caused students a great deal of discomfort, a logical outcome when freshmen/sophomores’ values are challenged. 

The evolution of Unit One/Allen Hall make visible the academic vulnerabilities of innovation. An example of this was when the feature characteristics of courses such as Community Internships, Women’s Studies, Interpersonal and Black/White Relations were reorganized. They were small class size, seminar format, flexible structure, innovative approaches to subject matter and presentation and student participation in design and content.

Part 2:

Peltason notes the importance of reform at the University of Illinois. His goal is to be a leading institution in Illinois in providing instruction for freshmen and sophomores of the highest quality level. He also articulates that “there is a need for coordinated curriculum development, experimentation, evaluation, and research in undergraduate education. Furthermore, Peltason is emphasizing how departments may restructure their curriculum, causing a domino affect to other departments without them even knowing it. This may bring pressures on the allocation of a student’s time during a semester, and all innovation and experiementation with courses should be evaluated systematically.

Week 08 – Lab Reflection + Reading Response

Part 1: Lab – Interview and Survey Design

I reached out to the two members of NOBE and will update this post after their responses. I am also awaiting a response from the Dr. Turner and Mrs. Newell.

Developing Survey Questions:

How has the constant growth of technology impacted the way students connect with each other and the world?

  • Very positive impact
  • Positive impact
  • No impact at all
  • Negative Impact
  • Very negative impact

What communication method through technology is the most efficient for students?

  • Email
  • Text
  • Snapchat
  • Mobile Call
  • Instagram
  • Other: ________

Did you experience a social change after using a certain technology to communicate?

  • Great amount of social change
  • Decent amount of social change
  • Neutral amount of social change
  • Slight amount of social change
  • Little to no amount of social change

What percentage of students are aided by technology?

  • 100%
  • 80%
  • 60%
  • 40%
  • 20%

What social media platforms do you use and why? (Select all that apply)

  • Twitter
  • Facebook
  • Snapchat
  • Instagram
  • Tik-Tok
  • Linkedin
  • None of the above

How does technology affect our perception of our needs? How does it affect our way of seeing and experiencing the world? (Select all that you agree with)

  • Makes students believe that they have to rely on technology
  • Opens up opportunities for students that must overcome disabilities
  • It doesn’t affect our perception of our needs
  • Diversifies what a student wants versus what he/she needs
  • Can lead students to think that they take more for granted than they thought before

To what extent does technology redefine reality? Does it serve to solidify knowledge or relationships?

  • Certain technologies can question the purpose of life
  • Certain technologies can make or break friendships or relationships
  • Technology solidifies knowledge
  • Technology does not redefine reality
  • Technology will always continue to shape our knowledge of the world

Before COVID, you used technology on a [ ] basis:

  • Hourly
  • Daily
  • Weekly
  • Monthly
  • Yearly

Survey Distribution Leads

Sebastian Dziubek / Student in Engineering / University of Illinois

Matt Perry / Student in Engineering / University of Illinois

Reading Response

The resource Students utilize technology for social good through Hack4Impact from the Daily Illini helps explore how it helps connect students with nonprofits through technology and the impacts that they make on society. The author believes that “this whole idea of social impact and technology needs to be more intertwined in the future to propel nonprofits to do even more social good,” pushing for technology to be utilized to its full potential. The impact that this organization has on social change through will help me pursue the answer to my inquiry. Additionally, they created an educational tool called MapStories “developed as a way to help the newsroom share local history and African American culture in a user-friendly way.” This is a key event that was used to build their story, which eventually allowed them to partner with other nonprofits that wanted to help change the world for good. Furthermore, Hack4Impact will develop a web application to help facilitate the matching of tutors with children in Cambodia who will help the children learn English. The author demonstrates that “the projects they develop not only allow them to learn but also give them meaningful experiences and opportunities to contribute to something beyond this campus,” proving that they make software products to make the world a better place. Another resource Students increase social media use over stay-at-home order from Daily Illini will help explore what can change when a student uses technology more than they did previously in their life. Increased use of social media can social impact many students on campus, positively, or negatively. The article displays what certain social media have done to impact a student. For example, “increased online interaction has highlighted Snapchat as a communication staple for the current students’ generation,” as opposed to mobile text messages. The author also demonstrates how a student uses a social media platform to enhance her business. She notes that “by using Instagram, I can also turn my platform into a business platform, in order to see how many views I have to review how much interest there is in my product.” Not only does the author use example from students, but also includes data on phone usage before, during, and after the pandemic. The report was released by App Annie, a global provider of mobile market data, saying that “phone usage worldwide has gone up by 20% during the COVID pandemic.” This key event was used by the author to build onto their story, as well as another data report later in the article involving a social media marketing tool that provides analytics called NapoleanCat, showing the increase of social media users from February to March, the peak of the pandemic. Overall, both sources provide strong answers to my inquiry through data, statistics, and recent events. They summarize their evidence through this data to further back up the points being made throughout the articles.

5 Takeaways to Integrate to Survey

  1. Test the survey with family or friends for feedback before sending it out to people that will actually participate in the finalized survey.
  2. Make sure the instructions are clear and precise for the reader.
  3. Keep the questionnaire shorter and response options concise. Also consider the order of the questions, as some responses can be impacted by other questions.
  4. Answer choices should anticipate all possibilities because respondents might have more than one answer in mind or may have a hard time deciding.
  5. Ensure that the answers to the questions help meet the objectives of the survey.

These are relevant to me because it’s important that I get clear, accurate, and honest responses to my questions. The odds that people will complete my survey will be maximized if I keep the questions short and clear and all available answers to it. Accuracy will be determined if I avoid suggesting answers from the formulation of my questions.

Week 07 – Lab Reflection + Reading Response

Part 1: Lab – Ethical Research and Best Practices

Archives

Interview Questions:

  1. How has the constant growth of technology changed the way students connect with each other and the world?
  2. What communication method through technology is the most efficient? How so?
  3. Did you experience a social change after using a certain technology to communicate?
  4. Before COVID, did you use technology on a daily basis? If so, how often did you use it? If not, why do you decide not to?
  5. Does it replace, or does it aid human beings? How does it affect the quality of our lives?
  6. What social media platforms do you use and why?
  7. How does technology affect our perception of our needs? How does it affect our way of seeing and experiencing the world? (U of I) (Safer App)
  8. To what extent does technology redefine reality? Does it serve to solidify knowledge or relationships?

Interviewees and Survey Distribution Leads:

  1. Daniel Turner – Director – Division of General Studies
  2. Melissa Newel – Director – Undergraduate Affairs/School of Information Sciences
  3. Mirko Janjanin – RSO Leader for National Organization of Business and Engineering
  4. Malik Siddique – RSO Leader for National Organization of Business and Engineering

Reading Response:

PLATO was able to make a big impact on creating a new type of mass communications system in and outside of educational applications. To begin with, this system “consists of a keyset which the student uses to ‘talk’ to the computer and a display screen which the computer uses to ‘talk’ to the student” (Weber). By allowing the system to communicate with a student who is blind, it could potentially change and reshape how many other students with a similar disability can still learn properly. Additionally, “there are over 3,000 authors who generate new lesson material” on the University of Illinois PLATO system (Bitzer). These authors cover many lesson materials involving key subjects such as mathematics and English, and certain courses in the CBE (Computer Based Education for the Handicapped) have been developed to directly or indirectly aid the handicapped. Additionally, to develop tactile speech recognition, PLATO’s auditory disk was used to verbalize words and phrases which were then converted into touch patterns through a sensory aid. The students “learned that ‘new language’ of time-varying vibration patterns” and was then checked by PLATO for feedback and responses (Bitzer). The flexibility of its hardware and adaptability of its software opened new approaches in this area. Another application to PLATO is for teaching people who are blind. This can be made possible because “the computer reads the written text normally displayed on the computer terminal by speaking through a voice synthesizing unit,” making it possible for a blind user to interact with a computer in an efficient way (Bitzer). Lastly, since the PLATO system had a number of extra keys with different functions to control the computer compared to a normal one, a design to enhance PLATO was a seven key device called a Perkins Brailler. It was evident that “with this device, there was no question as to the ability of most students to operate it with ease” (Weber). In designing an educational system, a major portion of the work naturally had to come from the social sciences.

Even though PLATO may not be as efficient as a teacher, “computerized teaching machines should be looked at as tools to alleviate the shortage of teachers for the blind” (Weber). Many online platforms offer education such as Khan Academy, but won’t be much help to a blind student who cannot see the screen display. The major difference between PLATO and other online frameworks is accessibility because students are very limited to options on the PLATO system. Another difference is that since there were many bugs about the system, a student from the hardware-software group who could control the computer through a standard keyset, would watch over the blind student to ensure that the errors could be corrected.

Week 06 – Lab Reflection + Reading Response

Part 1: Lab – Online Search & Project Development

Primary and Secondary Resources:

In order to answer my question on how technology has shaped communication within students, I need to find out how technology can be utilized to influence social change. The resource “Students utilize technology for social good through Hack4Impact” helps explore how it helps connect students with nonprofits through technology and the impacts that they make on society.

In order to answer my question on how technology has shaped communication within students, I need to find out how certain communication methods through technology change the way students interact with one another. The resource “The Role of Communication Technology in Adolescent Relationships and Identity Development” helps explain the impact that technology and communication methods have on students.

In order to answer how communication between undergraduate students at the University of Illinois has changed over time through the innovation of technology, I need to find out how students are taught to use technology. The resource “It doesn’t matter what is in their Hands” helps explore what impacts technology provided by an institution has on a student’s academic efficiency as well as their social interaction.

In order to answer my question on the social impact that technology has on students at the University of Illinois, I need to find out how increased use of technology is a factor of the social impact. My source “Students increase social media use over stay-at-home order” will help explore what can change when a student uses technology more than they did previously in their life.

Other resources I can use that will help with my research are newspapers, experiments, and interviews. For example, I could interview alumni that have experienced the progression of technology since their years in college. My research would be relevant to campus or community leaders because by understanding how the means of communication between undergraduate students at an institution changed over time through the innovation of technology, and what social impact has it had since previous years.

Drafting Interview & Survey Questions

  1. Before COVID, did you use technology on a daily basis? If so, how often did you use it? If not, why do you decide not to?
  2. What communication method through technology is the most efficient? How so?
  3. Did you experience a social change after using a certain technology to communicate?
  4. What social media platforms do you use and why?
  5. How has the constant growth of technology changed the way students connect with each other and the world?

Reading Response

Heinz von Foerster and members of the BCL used specific strategies to develop cybernetics practice. The first strategy implemented was after he established ‘second order cybernetics.’ Shortly after he did this, “he established the Biological Computer Laboratory in 1958 as a center for the study of the computational principles in living organisms” (Anderson).

The second strategy is that a member of BCL, Andrew Pickering, who “presents the emphasis on biological computing within cybernetics during the 1950s and 1960s as a productive alternative to modern technoscience” (Prutzer). He focuses on British cyberneticians to reflect the omission of von Foerster’s and the BCL’s work within cybernetics literature.

The final strategy was that Von Foerster made an attempt to keep BCL alive by submitting a proposal to the National Science Foundation entitled, “Cognitive Technology.” The purpose of this proposal “drew on campuswide expertise in cognitive theory, educational psychology, linguistics, computer networks, programming, and multimedia” (Hutchinson).

4 Questions:

  1. Were the obstacles of the formation of BCL difficult to overcome? How did you overcome them?
  2. What other work is involved in the BCL besides cybernetics?
  3. The BCL, with little to no university support for its highly interdisciplinary work, was unable to sustain itself without funding. How did it manage to continue its legacy?
  4. Are BCL innovations considered more social or technical? Why is one more common than the other?

Week 05 – Lab Reflection + Reading Response

Lab – University Archive Visit Report:

2 Questions:

  • How have the means of communication between undergraduate students at UofI changed over time through the innovation of technology?
  • What social impact has technology had since the 19th century?

This question is not answerable with a simple yes or no, but rather requires synthesis and analysis of ideas and sources prior to the composition of an answer. Using the University of Illinois digital collections, I will be able to understand how different technologies have impacted students positively and negatively. My search terms will be “technology”, “innovation”, and “communication”.

Lab Assignment + Reflection

4 Screenshots that can help provide answers to my research question:

#1: This picture provides the abstract of an analysis of the use of the Internet with observation and interviewing. It also displays how data and numbers were also used by different methods and approaches. These materials are relevant to students because it provides research and statistics. This will help me further determine how the use of different technologies affected communication. Source:http://hdl.handle.net/2142/79612

#2: These two pictures demonstrate data taken from the digital collections that show the purpose of students’ use of technology through email and factors that drive students not to use this kind of technology. I can support my question with this kind of evidence because it provides a bias from a student’s perspective. Furthermore, this can be relevant to students as they can see data that shows certain factors that drive a student to use a certain technology. Source:http://hdl.handle.net/2142/79612

#3: This image provides results to questions that can relate to or even support my own question. The page numbers provided after each question will allow me to briefly find specific answers to my question and also raise other questions that I didn’t think of previously. A concern that may arise is determining how one communication impacted students one way, versus how another did not impact students at all. Source:http://hdl.handle.net/2142/79612

#4: This picture explains the focus and purpose of the use of Internet-based communication. It shows that different communication methods were used as part of the research to determine how often they are used and their effectiveness. The only concerns that I would have for these results are inaccurate data or misinformation, but with enough evidence, this source will provide answers to my inquiry. Source:http://hdl.handle.net/2142/79612

Developing Line of Inquiry:

Through interview data, survey data, and library-archive materials provided in my source, I will be able to answer and even build off of my questions. As I read through my source, I found that much of the research involved interviews with students which then gathered data to prove which technologies anticipate efficiency.

Reading Response:

I liked how Andrew Yang incorporated the quote “The future is already here—it’s just unevenly distributed” by William Gibson at the beginning of chapter three. It demonstrates the first point Yang makes about families with different incomes and how people question their normality. He makes a note that “What feels normal to each of us is based on our context” and uses college students or graduates education as examples (Yang Chapter 3). He displayed a chart of different genders and races and the percentages of how high they get to their education on average. This data allowed me to understand where I stand from an educational point of view and where being normal is on the spectrum. Yang also helps me connect to my friends’ context and how “the odds of them all being college graduates if you took a random sampling of Americans would be about one-third of 1 percent, or 0.0036. The likelihood of four or more of them being college graduates would be only about 4 percent,” (Yang Chapter 3). This further addresses how Yang uses numbers and percentages to clarify his point.

Andrew Yang further demonstrates data and statistics when he talked about the net worth of Americans with a certain degree in education. I noticed a trend that net worth goes up with age, but other factors like gender and race cause uneven distribution. According to the U.S Census, for average Americans with high school diplomas or some college, the median net worth hovers around $36,000, including home equity. Normally it would go up with more education, but with the data provided on the median net worth and assets of people with different backgrounds, “the racial disparities are dramatic, with black and Latino households holding dramatically lower assets across the board and whites and Asians literally having 8 to 12 times higher levels of assets on average” (Yang Chapter 3). The evidence to this is presented from the Survey of Income and Program Participation and led me to interpret the message that Yang is anticipating to the audience.

Yang’s evidence also relates to and even questions our humanity. He talks about how most people don’t even like their jobs, especially right after they graduate. Additionally, he uses numbers and percentages to explain his point, and “According to Gallup, only 13 percent of workers worldwide report being engaged with their jobs. The numbers are a little better in America, with 32 percent saying they were engaged with their work in 2015” (Yang Chapter 7). This changed my perspective on the rarity that you’ll meet someone who actually likes their job. Normally I wouldn’t think that I’d struggle to find work that I am excited about, unless if I have financial goals and pressures to meet. Even though I haven’t graduated college yet, I am already thinking of careers that I’d like to pursue, but now I’m also thinking about the position I’m in versus the position that the rest of the nation is in. Yang also states that “the relationship between humanity and work involves money, but in something of a negative correlation,” and how the jobs and roles that are the most human tend to pay lower than other jobs (Yang Chapter 7). By using statistics and data, Yang is not only able to display a message to the reader, but also changed my own perspective on the bigger things in life.