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Week 09 – Lab Reflection + Reading Response

1b. Transcribe Interview

a. Have you ever used any online learning environments/platforms? If so then which ones and in what capacity? (eg. Student, Educator, Administrator, etc.)

“I am a student rn, so have used quite a few.. Moodle, compass, prairieLearn, and all. The same as you.”

b. How do you think your educational experience would change if you were to shift your studies to completely offline without access to such platforms?

It would not be the same to be honest, especially during COVID. I cannot imagine us being able to study without these platforms. Having these platforms makes it possible to communicate with the instructors and other students remotely. I don’t think discussions, and other kinds of activities could take place without them.

c. What are some offline study experiences that you think cannot be replicated in online study platforms?

I can’t seem to think of any to be honest, the proctoring maybe. The proctoring and doubt clearing on online platforms are no where as good as real life.

d. Are you currently a student, if not what year were you one, and what kind of technology did you use at that time to aid in studies at the University?

yeah I am currently a student.

e. Do you think your attention is better grasped if the class uses interaction technology such as the i-Clicker, etc , why? or do you prefer some other kind of classroom experience.

I think it is. I am much more focused in the class if there are i clicker activities. I need to get the scores you see. Because of that motivation I seem to be more concentrated in the content being taught.

f. Have you ever faced difficulties studying because the course had technology components, if so what were the issues you faced?

Well there are always technical difficulties. Net issues and stuff. But if you mean problems in studying because of technology. I don’t think there was. I would say though, that technology kind of makes the whole study process a little impersonal.

g. What kinds of changes do you imagine in educational technology in the near future?

I totally feel, augmented reality and virtual reality are going to be big in the future of education, for labs and stuff I think. I also feel AI will replace the easy math classes, or the simpler classes I feel.

Reading Response

Part 1

a. There were major criticisms over recent evaluation studies and actively overseeing the academic program’s maintenance and development. 

b. One of the greatest challenges are the long-term instructional participation by faculty and the acknowledgement by student-residents that taking academic chances and exploring new territory are educationally rewarding experiences.

c. There were vulnerabilities in terms of funding and also leadership where the idea of the leaders did not match in sync which caused issues to which direction the hall was headed. We also saw vulnerabilities in DRES where funding was an issue.

Part 2

American universities, certainly including the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign , are being challenged to maintain and improve the quality of undergraduate education. The challenge has a long history, but our response remains inadequate. This challenge has been trying to be met and now because because the author feels that the UIUC is not the best institution in providing instruction for underclassmen with a high faulty education system. He feels the system has lacked historically and wants to improve the educational experience for the underclassmen.

The issues underclassmen face are for which the solutions could be –

Create a structure within the university complex capable of attracting and organizing the expertise that already exists among the faculty for dealing with undergraduate instructional needs.

Define the needs as they exist on this campus to focus the activities and channel the energies of those who become engaged in coping with our undergraduate instructional problems.

Week 08 – Lab Reflection + Reading Response

1b. Schedule and Conduct Interview

I have scheduled a call with Andreas Paul Eberhard Kloeckner to discuss the platform RELATE, and interview him on the questions for the 24th. I have sent emails to the rest of my primary leads and am still waiting to hear back from them.

1c. Developing Survey Questions

a. Which online learning environments/platforms have you used at the University, if any? (Select all that apply)

– RELATE

– Moodle

– Compass2g/ Illinois Compass

– PrairieLearn

– Other (Please Specify)

b. In what capacity have you used these online education platforms?

– Student

– Instructor

– Administrator

c. How do you think your educational experience would change if you were to shift your studies to completely offline without access to such platforms?

– Drastically Worse

– Little Worse

– About the same

– Little Better

– Drastically Better

d. Do you think the complete offline study experience is able to be emulated on these online study platforms?

– Yes

– No (What is it that is missing?)

e. If you are currently and Instructor, name the different technological study environments that you used as a student if any.

– Free Response box

f. Do you believe your attentiveness is improved using technological products like the i-clicker in the study environment?

– Not at all

– Not much

– It’s about the same

– It’s a little better

– By a lot

g. How do you think technology in education is affecting the quality of education being provided?

– Drastically deteriorating

– Making it a little worse

– Not affecting it in any way

– Improving it a little

– Education is better than it ever was

h. Do you think the colleges would be able to function the same during this pandemic without the aid of technology? How?

– Yes [Free Response field]

– No [Free Response field]

1d. Expand Survey Distribution Leads

Cecilia Ding – Chair ACM UIUC

Vibhav Kotriwala – Engineering Student UIUC

Reading Response

My secondary source is an excerpt from the research paper “EXAMINING TECHNOLOGICAL FACTORS ON E-LEARNING ACCEPTANCE AND LEARNING TRANSFER” by Seohyun Claire Wong. The main idea and goal of the paper revolves around analyzing and to explore technological factors at the learner, instructional design, and system level and examine their effects on the e-learning acceptance and learning outcomes.(Wong). The author through this study is mainly attempting to clear the ambiguity revolving around our understanding of technological factors that are unique in e-learning such as computer anxiety, perceived ease of use, or controllability. (Wong)

The research design and data collection for the project was quite detailed. This research is a cross-sectional study using a quantitative survey to explain the effect of e-learning technological factors on technology acceptance and learning transfer. The quantitative research design was selected for this study because the purpose of the research was to examine the effects and relationships among variables (Creswell, 1994). A written survey was created to measure 14 factors and gather demographic information. All instruments measuring factors in the survey were previously validated in the existing literature. To collect the data, an electronic survey was sent to the target respondents by e-mails. A confirmation factor analysis technique was employed to cross-validate the factors. An inferential statistical analysis method, structural equation modeling, was performed for the hypotheses testing. (Wong)

Wong analyzes several key perspectives in relation to e-learning in this study, these perspectives give me several ideas for my own research study and are quite informative. The different types of topics that are covered include –

– Intention to Use & Actual Use

– Learner Satisfaction

– Perceived Usefulness

– Reliability and Functionality

– Perceived Ease of Use

These generic topic areas are important for my research study as well, as they help gauge the overall impact of e-learning environments on students, instructors and will help better answer my overall research question.

5 Takeaways –

1) research design – Design the research paper, understand the requirements and how you want to answer those requirements.

2) target population and research sample – Understand the exact target population, and ask questions pertinent to them, also analyze how their answers help answer the research questions

3) measurements – Use metrics, and clear data to prove your points.

4) data collection process – Use multiple different kinds of datasets, such as interviews, surveys, statistics, and research studies to further reinforce your findings.

5) Divide and Conquer – Divide the general question into smaller subsets and categories, and try and answer those categories separately. Together they shall answer the general question as a whole.

Week 07 – Lab Reflection + Reading Response

Drafting Interview Questions

a. Have you ever used any online learning environments/platforms? If so then which ones and in what capacity? (eg. Student, Educator, Administrator, etc.)

b. How do you think your educational experience would change if you were to shift your studies to completely offline without access to such platforms?

c. What are some offline study experiences that you think cannot be replicated in online study platforms?

d. Are you currently a student, if not what year were you one, and what kind of technology did you use at that time to aid in studies at the University?

e. Do you think your attention is better grasped if the class uses interaction technology such as the i-Clicker, etc , why? or do you prefer some other kind of classroom experience.

f. Have you ever faced difficulties studying because the course had technology components, if so what were the issues you faced?

g. What kinds of changes do you imagine in educational technology in the near future?

h. Do you think the COVID pandemic study experience would have been different had there not been educational technologies like Moodle present? How?

i. Do you think technology can completely replace the need for human teaching, do you think it is the right path to move forward in?

For people who are in position to answer questions about specific platforms there will be 2-3 more questions about the platforms.

Identify Interviewees and Survey Distribution Leads

J. Stephen Downie – Assistant Dean for Research at the i-School UIUC

Andreas Paul Eberhard Kloeckner – Assistant Professor at CS@Illinois (Founder of RELATE)

Gabrielle Allen – Associate Dean for Research at DELTA UIUC

Kristen Allen –  Illinois Distributed Museum Coordinator

Reading Response

Applications or design features of PLATO –

a. offering coursework (elementary through university) to UIUC students, local schools, prison inmates, and other universities

b.  The system included a number of features useful for pedagogy, including text overlaying graphics, contextual assessment of free-text answers, depending on the inclusion of keywords, and feedback designed to respond to alternative answers.

c. On a pro grammar instructional system for blind students. The students soon recognized the potential of the PLATO system for this type of study. The hardware used in the conventional PLATO system consists of a keyset which the student uses to “talk” to the computer and a display screen which the computer uses to “talk” to the student.

d. In PLATO IV Plasma Display Screens. The display was a 512×512 bitmap, with both character and vector plotting done by hardwired logic. It included fast vector line drawing capability.

e. An experiment was conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of using toe teaching computer as a medium for involving people in community planning. The research described was conducted using the Platodsyotem at the Computerbased Education Research Laboratory at UIUC.

Differences between PLATO and Modern Educational Technology Services –

a. Mobility – PLATO was a combination of Hardware and Software, it was a big machine that could not be carried everywhere. On the other hand with the advent of smartphones, tablets and laptops, education technology is much more mobile and can be undertaken at convenience anywhere.

b. Accessibility – There were a limited number of devices available and were not accessible to students all the time. On the other hand with personal tech devices and availability of software on all those devices, using tech is much more simpler.

c. Information Scale – Since PLATO was the first of its kind collaborative platform and came at a time when the internet also did not exist, there was limited information available on it, only the amount that was created and stored by the PLATO community. But with the internet, the information reach is much more wide and vast.

Week 06 – Lab Reflection + Reading Response

Project Development

Primary Sources –

In order to find out about the history of tech in education I need to find out the roots of how technology environments came in to being this picture sheds some light upon PLATO. The first primary source in my opinion will be this article and picture of PLATO from the 1960s. This article talks about PLATO, I feel this is important in exhibiting the roots of online and technology aided education at the University. Since PLATO was a monumental discovery for the whole world, it is a bigger sense of pride for the University.

Source: https://www.vice.com/en/article/pa3vvg/the-greatest-computer-network-youve-never-heard-of

This picture talks about how several courses at the University are dependent on Technology for instructional purposes. The article introduces RELATE, a study platform that was created by a Professor at the University to help classes take place more seamlessly. This picture helps answer the question in terms of the need for technology platforms and the article further elaborates on how platforms like RELATE are changing the way studies take place at the University.

Source: https://dailyillini.com/news/2018/04/05/engineering-professor-develops-free-online-course-platform/

Secondary Sources –

In order to answer my question of how technology is aiding education, we need to show how the technology environments have evolved over time. This article from 2013 talks about the introduction of Compass2g at the University. It also sheds some light upon the new features that the platform possesses. This article will be useful in showing the evolution of such digital platforms.

Source: https://dailyillini.com/uncategorized/2013/08/30/moodle-compass-manage-class-readings-quizzes-homework-assignments/

In order to answer the question about the impact and different methods of technology that are used in education we can use this research study by Prof. Wong. This study examines the factors of technology that impact the learner, educators and administration. How these platforms are aiding or affecting education and what kind of a growth we are seeing in online education.

Source: https://www.ideals.illinois.edu/bitstream/handle/2142/108160/WONG-DISSERTATION-2020.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=n

Once we are done scraping through the above resources, I believe reading more into studies and articles where students and educators talk about how their lives have changed with the advent of such technology would be an interesting source to help answer the questions. I also believe we should research more into the impact of online environments like these in time of the COVID pandemic because online education in Today’s era is more important than it ever was. I believe this would be a very crucial part in our study too. I would also like to look into the impact of devices like the I-Clicker in education and how it has helped in attendance and class attention grabbing statistics.

Drafting Interview and Survey Questions

a. Have you ever used any online learning environments/platforms? If so then which ones and in what capacity? (eg. Student, Educator, Administrator, etc.)

b. How do you think your educational experience would change if you were to shift your studies to completely offline without access to such platforms?

c. What are some offline study experiences that you think cannot be replicated in online study platforms?

d. Are you currently a student, if not what year were you one, and what kind of technology did you use at that time to aid in studies at the University?

e. Do you think your attention is better grasped if the class uses interaction technology such as the i-Clicker, etc , why? or do you prefer some other kind of classroom experience.

Reading Response

Three strategies that Foster and the team at BCL used to develop cybernetic practices were –

a. Heuristics – In the spring of 1968, a group of students from a variety of majors approached von Foerster and Brün with a proposal for a course on heuristics—a broadly focused, interdisciplinary survey of how problems are identified and solved, whether by artificial or living systems, by individuals or groups. This helped students be more involved in research in the classroom. (Hutchinson)

b.  Publication of Das GedächtnisThe same year that von Foerster published Das Gedächtnis, MIT mathematician and Macy Conference participant Norbert Wiener published Cybernetics: Or Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine, on the science of communication and control. This gave cybernetics the exposure in the education community that it needed. (Anderson)

c. Proposal to National Science Foundation – Von Foerster made a final, ambitious attempt to keep BCL alive by submitting a proposal to the National Science Foundation entitled, “Cognitive Technology: A Citizen–Society Problem Solving Interface.” The proposal drew on campuswide expertise in cognitive theory, educational psychology, linguistics, computer networks, programming, and multimedia. (Hutchinson) This proposal tried to raise enough grants for the BCL to keep it up and running.

Questions –

a. What makes you say Cybernetics is the most important tool to cure the problems of a troubled today?

b. Do you still think Cybernetics is as impactful in the present as it previously was, is there anything you feel needs evolving?

c. Do you think Heuristics is a necessary field that all students should learn? What are your thoughts on learning research in the current world with the advent of advance searching tools of the present?

d. What kind of other research took place at the BCL? Do you think there is still a void that needs to be filled by reviving BCL? What and Why?

Week 05 – Lab Reflection + Reading Response

2 Questions

1. How has the use of technology and ed tech platforms changed the way education is imparted at the University of Illinois?

2. What new methods of education have been introduced with the use of Technology since the non-internet days?

I believe technology has played a pivotal role, and has been among the biggest markers of change in the recent times. Searching through the University of Illinois digital archives can give us several ways in which technology changed the way students study at the University. With the introduction of ed tech platforms like Moodle, Compass and other internet based solutions, I believe we can find several resources for how education took place prior to the invention of such applications.

#1 This screenshot talks about PLATO, the first ever intranet for education at the University of Illinois. PLATO was not only the first ever intranet at the University but also the world. It was a historic achievement that pre-shadowed the internet. This is an important landmark in the use of tech in education. PLATO came into existence in the 1960s

Source: https://distributedmuseum.illinois.edu/exhibit/plato/

#2 This screenshot talks about the timeline of the use of technology at the Undergraduate Library at the university. This timeline is important because it gives us a sense of how tech aided education during the early 1960s. This screenshot is especially interesting because it gives us an exact timeline of what kind of tech was used during that time.

Soruce: https://www.library.illinois.edu/ugl/history/tech/history/

#3 The DELTA program was founded to research Digital Environments for Learning at the University of Illinois. This includes technology-enhanced classrooms, mobile devices, and immersive simulations across a range of disciplines, including science, engineering, math, literacy, language, and history. This program was pivotal in introducing several types of technology services at the University.

Source: https://publish.illinois.edu/deltaprogram/

#4 This is an excerpt from the digital archives of a research paper called ‘EXAMINING TECHNOLOGICAL FACTORS ON E-LEARNING ACCEPTANCE AND LEARNING TRANSFER’. This article talks in detail about the implication of e-learning and how it has played a role in education at the University. This particular screenshot gives us a lot of information about how technology acceptance in education has increased over time. This data is important in understanding our target size for our research.

Source: https://www.ideals.illinois.edu/bitstream/handle/2142/108160/WONG-DISSERTATION-2020.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=n

Reading Response

The author Andrew Yang in his book – The War on Normal People. Talks about the people of United States of America. Yang discusses job displacement and the shrinking of local economies, terming it the “Great Displacement”, which has been “the product of financialization, globalization, and technologization”. He talks about how money, education and privelege has created two different groups of people within the United States of America. One, the rich, educated and privileged which is the minority of people and then the Other, the poor, uneducated class which in his own terms are the ‘Normal’ people of America, the median.

In Chapter three of the book – Who is normal in America. Yang uses personal anecdotes to talk about his realisation about how what he used to think are the normal people of America, i.e people from his circle actually are the privileged class of America. He uses data, statistics, and graphs to show what ‘Normal’ in America truly is. How the ‘Normal’ american is much poor and uneducated than what we might think.

In Chapter four – What we do for a living. Andrew sheds great light through stats and facts about what jobs in America look like, what are the average jobs and the amount a median american makes working those jobs. It was an interesting fact sheet into what kind of work is the Normal American Involved with. A thought provoking line from the book, that made me think about the job market at hand was “Clerical jobs, retail jobs, and food service jobs are the most common jobs in the country. Each category is in grave danger and set to shrink dramatically. Yet they’re not even the ones to worry about most. The single most defining job in the automation story—the one that scares even the most hard-nosed observer—is the number four job category: materials transport, also known as truck driving.”

The last chapter for the reading delved deeply into the lives of Truck Drivers and Factory Workers, one of the biggest jobs that a lot of the Americans work in. It gave facts about how much they earn, what their lifestyle is like and what kind of a life they can afford.

Yang argues that “as technology continues to make many jobs obsolete, the government must take concrete steps to ensure economic stability for residents of the United States,” – Overall statements like these make this an intriguing and eye opening read.

Week 04 – Lab Reflection + Reading Response

Lab Reflection

1. First Year Campus Acquaintance Rape Education (FYCARE) workshop is a mandatory interactive discussion on campus sexual assault. FYCARE workshops focus on the dynamics of sexual assault, ways to support a survivor, understanding consent, and campus and community resources. The majority of workshops are held in your residence halls and facilitated by peer educators, specially trained undergraduate students. FYCARE evaluations show that the vast majority of past attendees found the workshops both interesting and beneficial. The program became mandatory in the fall of 1996, in large part due to a grassroots effort from students in response to campus events. Peer institutions frequently look to the FYCARE program as a model for similar programs.

2. Data and records of the numbers and kinds of sexual assaults taking place on campus, studies evaluating the change in rates of sexual assaults since the establishment of FYCARE on campus will also help in gathering supporting evidence for this program.

3. I would chose documents that would support the existence of sexual assault on campus and preferably try and find articles that talk about the efficiency of programs like FYCARE.

Document 1 – https://archon.library.illinois.edu/index.php?p=collections/controlcard&id=624&q=sexual+assault

Document 2 – https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=uiug.30112055127614&view=1up&seq=1

3 Questions –

a. How are some ways the university increases the reach and impact of the FYCARE program?

b. How often is the syllabus of the program updated to meet the needs of the evolving situation to be effective in current times?

c. Since the establishment of FYCARE is the university seeing any decline in the number of sexual assault cases?

3 Multiple Choice Questions –

a. What percentage of women will experience a sexual assault incident in their undergraduate years?

– 10%

– 20%

– 25%

– 5%

b. How frequently is the FYCARE curriculum updated to remain on the cutting edge?

– Annually

– Semi Annually

– Once every 3 years

– Once every 5 years

c. What percentage of students at the University of Illinois are women?

– 10%

– 24%

– 45%

– 65%

4. Overall when FYCARE was introduced at UIUC it was taken up as a welcome move by the college authorities. There were not many oppositions or barriers I was able to find with regards to FYCARE.

5. The only barrier that I feel that FYCARE faces and needs to be addressed is students not completing the program on time or properly. This issue can be addressed by the university by taking stricter action to get students to comply with completing the coursework for the program.

Reading Response

During those times there were quite a few social and cultural barriers that played a role in leadership, politics and education as a whole. One of the barriers that I noticed was that “In 1968, feminism was not self-evidently on the agenda. Indeed, visible female leaders were rare.” (Evans) This was a problem because without proper female leadership the ideals of feminism and the voices of women was not heard. Young people challenging the rigidity of patriarchal institutions embraced Marcuse’s claim that it was possible to imagine “a non-repressive civilization, based on a fundamentally different experience of being and gender norms” (Evans). Another barrier was free speech, during Stottard’s time free speech was a risky venture among liberal educators. (Metz 12) Stottard strongly supported free speech, he gave moving dialogues to show his support for freedom of speech including – “We are all free in all respects save one; We are not free to tolerate the destruction of our freedom” (Metz 12). Another barrier was the objectification and unequal treatment of women, men were considered superior, more powerful and authoritarian. To combat this barrier a lot of student rebellions took place demanding equal rights for women “Student rebellions shared an emphasis on spontaneity, authenticity, and anti-hierarchy, and a utopian expectation that revolutionary change could be achieved. That utopianism was fed by the concrete, collective experiences of prolonged strikes and campus occupations.” (Evans)

Five Questions –

1. Who were the prime faces of feminism in the early 1968s that played the most crucial role in bringing these ideals forward?

2. What kinds of strategies and revolts were the most effective in making an impact on the existing ideology about women?

3. What restricted freedom of speech, and without it how did it amass such a huge revolution like population?

4. How has feminism changed since 1968 to present?

5. Is complete freedom of speech also the best solution for a country at large? Consider the spread of fake news due to the extreme freedom of speech on social networks.

Lab Reflection + Reading Response – Week 3

The tour was quite memorable, it was fascinating to see the innovations and measures that DRES has taken to make the lives of the disabled students on campus easier. A few of the interesting features in the facilities that stood out to me were, when the speaker mentioned the availability of Personal Assistants and disabled friendly services for smoother commute for the students. That seemed like a very convenient service to have. Another one was the Elevators were specially designed to be made disabled friendly and were a little larger and different than the regular elevators. All the spaces in the building were constructed keeping wheelchairs in mind, with very few stairs, and all the spaces having elevator connections or slopes so that wheelchairs could easily be transported. Another thing that stood out for me was how they had several spare wheelchairs in a room, which felt like a great service to have.

Out of all the collaborations with Microsoft, and other organizations, the one collaboration that stood out for me was the one with the Olympics. It was interesting and prideworthy to be told that most of the members in the Paralympics team came from UIUC, and it was fascinating to understand DRES had a huge role to play in it. The partnership of DRES with the USA Special Olympics Team is a very noble venture that provides disabled people a great platform for representation in the world of sports, it also brings DRES a lot of international exposure.

I have attached pictures I found of DRES. I did not realize we had to screenshot during the zoom meeting.

Shows facilities in Beckwith hall, and the Personal Assistant Services from DRES.

Shows the sports wheelchairs that are used by the students while playing the various sports.

Quotes that got the Spotlight:

  1. “We have extensive collaborations and partnerships with the United States Special Olympics Team, a lot of the members of the team are from University of Illinois.”
  2. “We have DRES alum working at companies like Microsoft, DRES helped me in achieving this goal.”
  3. “This innovation garage, has a lot of interesting stuff to foster innovation”

There are a few issues that DRES still needs to address, and seem to be the major barriers for the organization:

  1. Funding – the organization requires more funding to achieve its goals at scale.
  2. Stigma – DRES still must fight some stigma that revolves around disabled people and what they are capable of. This issue can be fought only by further educating the people about the achievements.

Reading Response

There were quite a few strategies that were employed to increase diversity and inclusion within the university. A few good examples would be organisations demanding the increased employment of black people. “In the wake of Project 500’s tumultuous launch, the BSA demanded that the university hire more black professors, establish a black cultural center, and organize an African American studies program.” (220) This helped in increasing diversity and a more inclusive culture within the university.

Other strategies that were put into place included – This included an organization taking a stance for the Latino student population at the university, “La Casa sought to expand the definition of “minority” to include bilingual students who descended from Latino families who were either citizens in the United States or immigrants from Latin America. Like the BSA, Colectiva brought attention to the severe under representation of Latino students and faculty on campus and demanded that the university develop a recruitment initiative to remedy the situation.” This shed light into the demands and talked about how latinos also deserved an equal representation at the University. (221) Following on the footsteps of BSA and La Casa, “While seeking the establishment of a cultural center, Asian American student activists also called for the establishment of an academic program. Courses in Asian American studies appeared in the early 1990s, but it was not until 1997 that the Asian American Studies Committee was organized” (222) This brought to the attention of the University authorities for the need of Asian coursework, and representation in the University. All of these examples were fighting for the same cause, an equal and fair representation and opportunities in the University.

These organisations, made great progress and impact. For La Casa, after several rounds of protests – The board of trustees soon approved the establishment of a Latino Studies Program, with Rafael Nunez-Cedeno, a professor of Spanish originally from the Dominican Republic, serving as the acting director. Over the next two decades, the program expanded its course offerings, developed an undergraduate minor in 1997. Similarly, BSA achieved great success as well.

Overall, although great progress has been made over the years, the fight for equal representation is not over yet, there needs to be further research to find out the groups that are still left out and to give them representation in the University. More strategies need to be employed to bring forward a more inclusive and discrimination free environment.

Annotated Bibliography

“Congressional Record: University of Illinois Centennial” Committee on the Centennial,
University of Illinois, 15 October 2009, pp. 73-76.

The main idea behind this record in my opinion was to put light on the International impact that
the University of Illinois has made in front of the Illinois representatives. The intended audience
is for the Illinois House of Representatives. The purpose of the text is to bring a change in policy
and legislation. The author has been a house representative himself, thus providing credibility to
his text. Henry talks about the immense scholastic and societal achievement of the university,
he also talks about the great impact the students and alum have made throughout the globe.

Geiger, Roger. The History of American Higher Education: Learning and Culture from the Founding to World War II.Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2015.

This study is intended to enlarge and extend appreciation of that history from the beginnings of
colonial colleges to the eve of World War II. Specifically, it seeks to explain how institutions of
higher education changed over time in response to their contemporary contexts. The intended
audience are scholars and postgraduate researchers majoring in education in my opinion.
Geiger is a Professor of Education at the Pennsylvania State University. He has done extensive
research in the field and is also a professor.

Schroeder, Paul. “Why?” The Daily Illini, 15 March 1968.

The main idea behind the article is to begin a movement to bring out modernised education at
the University of Illinois. Through his speech Schroeder tries to encourage his fellow students to
build new education for the future. Paul Schroeder is a representative of the Education Reform
Committee and a student at the University of Illinois. He believes that the university is not doing
enough to bring modern ways of teaching and the syllabus is not appropriate. The intended
audience for this speech is students, faculty, and administration of the University of Illinois.

Leslie J. Reagan, “Timothy Nugent: ‘Wheelchair Students’ and the Creation of the Most Accessible Campus in the World,” in The University of Illinois: Engine of Innovation, edited by Frederick E. Hoxie.

The main idea of this article is to talk about the creation, and the struggles and barriers towards
DRES and the disabled population at the University. The vision and dedication of one man, Tim
Nugent—together with the persistence of the university’s disabled students in making DRES a
reality. In 1948 admitting people with disabilities, specifically “wheelchair students,” to the state’s
flagship university and treating them like any other student on campus seemed strange
and questionable. However, with the struggles of Tim Nugent, and the student population this
dream was soon realised.

Steven E. Brown, “Breaking Barriers: The Pioneering Disability Students Services Program at
the University of Illinois: 1948-1960,” in The History of Discrimination in US Education, edited by
Eileen H. Tamura (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008)

The article is mainly about how the barriers mentioned in the above text were broken by Tim
Nugent, how DRES played a role in doing so, and how they went about making disabled
students accepted physically and culturally on campus. Those with disabilities were cast aside,
like criminals, away from public view. In 1948 a determined young man named Tim Nugent
intended to overturn such thinking. From 1948 to 1960, he shepherded a program that
succeeded in shatter-ing long standing, pervasive institutional, physical, economic,
psycholog-ical, and other barriers that marginalized and ostracized people with disabilities. As
the first director of the University of Illinois DisabilityResources and Educational Services
(DRES) program, Nugent did everything in his power to ensure its survival. He battled
prevalent nega-tive social attitudes, university bureaucracy, and an inaccessible environ-ment.
He cajoled, badgered, and encouraged many students who were unprepared for postsecondary
success.

Commemorative Book Preparation and Publication Committee. Expanding Horizons: A History of the First 50 Years of the Division of Rehabilitation-Education Services at the University of Illinois. Roxford DT Pub., 1998.

This excerpt is mainly about how DRES was established and how it came to be. It talks about the father and creator of DRES, the challenges both social and economic that DRES had to encounter in its initial years. It also talks about the role that DRES played in the lives of disabled population at the university.

Chapter 3: Joy Ann Williamson-Lott, Black Power on Campus: The University of Illinois, 1965-75. Champaign: University of Illinois Press, 2013

The author talks about the problems and issues relating to recruitment, acceptance of the black population, and retaining students — the article puts spotlight onto the various dynamics of the challenges that required the help and acceptance of many University scholastic departments and staff.

Pages 77 – 84: Joy Ann Williamson-Lott, “Clarence Shelley: The Campaign to Diversify the University” in The University of Illinois: Engine of Innovation, edited by Frederick E. Hoxie

The article talks about the history of black students at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, it talks about how the history is a complicated one that involves discrimination, racism, protest, and resilience. Because the African American community maintained an unwavering belief in the importance of education, It shows how the university have initiated the various movements for liberation.

Pages 219 – 223: Frederick E. Hoxie and Michael Hughes, “Nevada Street: A Center for the Study of Race and Ethnicity,” in The University of Illinois: Engine of Innovation, edited by Frederick E. Hoxie

The cultural houses on Nevada Street showcase the dedication for diversification and equality. They are grounds for student activists and faculty on the University of Illinois campus to have safe spaces and support for students of varying ethnic backgrounds.  The audience intended for this work would be students, and professors.

Metz, Michael. “Radicals in the Heartland: The 1960s Student Protest Movement at the University of Illinois.” University of Illinois Press, 2019.

            The main idea behind this excerpt was to discuss and inform the readers about the student protests that were occurring at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. There were discussions about how freedom of speech came to be at the university how during the 1960s it was a huge problem. Metz talks about how – “We are all free in all respects save one; We are not free to tolerate the destruction of our freedom” His perspective as a student at the university provides first-hand experience of the protests. The intended audience are students because it is a more informative article and strongly talks about his beliefs.

Evans, Sara M. “Sons, Daughters, and Patriarchy: Gender and the 1968 Generation.” American Historical Review, 2009.

The main idea behind this excerpt is to inform the readers about how feminism came to be during the 1960s. It talks in detail about how women were treated and how lack of woman leadership led to the unjust treatment of women and the dire need for principles and ideals of feminism. Sara M. Evans is a professor of history at the University of Minnesota. Since she has a lot of experience and has studied and researched in detail about this topic it makes her a credible source. The intended audience for this article is anyone interested the history of feminism especially young female readers.

Yang, Andrew. The War on Normal People: The Truth About America’s Disappearing Jobs. Hachette Books, 2018.

The main idea behind this book is to talk about what the Normal American looks like, delves deep into jobs and topics including technological change, automation, job displacement, the U.S. economy, and what Yang describes as the need for a UBI. The people of the United sates in my opinion are the main audience of this book. This book talks about a lot of topics that are central to Yang’s 2020 presidential campaign. Yang discusses job displacement and the shrinking of local economies, terming it the “Great Displacement”, which has been “the product of financialization, globalization, and technologization”. He talks about topics like how automation will displace many jobs, etc.

Prutzer, Ned. “The BCL and the Cybernetics Moment.” The Biological Computer Laboratory, 20 Jan. 2019, https://scalar.usc.edu/works/the-biological-computer-laboratory/the-bcl-and-the-cybernetics-moment?path=index.

This is a information website on the Biological Computer Lab. It consists of various intriguing artifacts and snippets of information about the BCL. Ned Prutzer is the creator of this website a PHD student who made it as research. I believe the intended audience are Students and Professors alike.

Hutchinson, Jamie. “Heinz Von Foerster and the Biological Computer Laboratory.” “Nerve Center” of the Cybernetic World, http://bcl.ece.illinois.edu/hutchinson/index.htm.

The website is an old fashioned HTML website that talks in detail about how the BCL came to be, it talks about several features of the BCL. It also delves into detail about cybernetics and sheds light upon Heinz Von Foster, talks about his contributions in the field of cybernetics and BCL. The intended audience for this website are students and faculty interested in the history of Bly Manor.

Anderson, Bethany. “Heinz von Foerster and the Biological Computer Laboratory: A Cybernetics Odyssey.” Exhibits, University of Illinois Archives, 6 December 2016, https://archives.library.illinois.edu/blog/heinz-von-foerster-and-the-bcl/.

The main idea behind this website is to act as a culmination of information on Heinz Von Foster, BCL and the practice of Cybernetics. The intended audience for this blog are students, faculty members and anyone who is interested in learning about these topics.

Dear, Brian. “Remembering the Future.” PLATO History, PLATO History Foundation, 2010, platohistoy.org/.

The platohistory.org website is the home of the PLATO History Foundation and the archive for information about the history and significance of the PLATO computer system and its online community.The Foundation’s principal focus is to advance the public awareness of the history, significance, and importance of the PLATO computer system and its online community, and to tell the story of the people who designed, built, and used the system.

Don Bitzer, “Use of CBE for the Handicapped,” American Annals of the Deaf 124.5 (1979)

The main idea of the excerpt from the book “Use of CBE for the Handicapped” by Don Bitzer is to talk about how computer network systems in education like the PLATO have aided in education for the Handicapped. It talks about how handicapped students can use PLATO features like narration for aiding in learning. The main audience for this book are educators and researchers in my opinion.

Lamont, Valerie. “New Directions for the teaching Computer: Citizen Participation in Community Planning.” Computer-based Education Research Laboratory, 1973.

The main idea behind this article is talk about how computer network systems like the PLATO can be used with helping and working on Community Planning. It talks about how using these systems the whole process becomes much less tedious and time consuming. The main audience in my opinion are the administrators that fun these community planning projects, researchers as well as students who are interested in the field.

Weber, Larry. “Blind Student Power.” Technograph, 1968.

The main idea behind this excerpt is to talk about how PLATO helped learning for blind students at the university. It talks in detail about the hardware, and how the system functions to help blind students study using PLATO. The hardware used in the conventional PLATO system consists of a keyset which the student uses to “talk” to the computer and a display screen which the computer uses to “talk” to the student. The main audience of this excerpt are students interested in learning about PLATO, also blind students informing them about the innovation of such features in the computer system.

Harvard U Program on Survey Research: Tip Sheet on Question Wording

This article is a guide to write proper research surveys, it consists of techniques and tips to write professional surveys. It has been accredited by Harvard University hence I believe it is a credible guide to write surveys. It consists of explanatory examples to better understand how surveys should be written. It also consists of a bibliography of all the sources which can be considered while making our own survey.

OECD (2012), “Good Practices in Survey Design Step-by-Step”, in Measuring Regulatory Performance: A Practitioner’s Guide to Perception Surveys, OECD Publishing, Paris.

Good practice methodologies considerably improve the quality of results and help avoid pitfalls. This chapter explains good practice through sequential, step-by-step guidance that can be used to design a perception survey. It provides advice on how to define survey objectives and the target group, draft survey questions, pilot and re-adjust a questionnaire, select respondents and data collection methods, run the survey, and analyse the results. (Good Practices Abstract)

Week 2 – Reading Response + Lab Reflection

Reading Response –

There were several methods that DRES and Nugent applied to change the way disability was treated on campus and eased the lives of several members of the community. Some of the most noticeable and landmark strategies that were used to disrupt were creation of a climate that welcomed disabled students and a program that drew them into the campus mainstream while providing spaces where a separate com-munity of their own could nurture and encourage them. There were accommodations towards disabled veterans, disabled students’ ability to open doors and portray adaptability, and the integration of sports and recreation. Created wheelchair accessible buildings, sidewalks, and other infrastructure to provide a truly accessible campus experience. In terms of disability accommodation the campus became a model of innovative architectural design. The governor, William Stratton gave a speech which legitimized and greatly showed support for the program.

Before DRES, and during the past two centuries, many Americans believed individuals with disabilities were deviant, or worse. Those with disabilities were cast aside, like criminals, away from public view. This was more or less the cultural perspective and a barrier that DRES had to overcome. This was overcome by the creation of DRES, and it was also the first barrier that they had to overcome. Nugent shepherded a program that succeeded in shattering longstanding, pervasive institutional, physical, economic, psychological, and other barriers that marginalized and ostracized people with disabilities. Another more recent issue that DRES faced was the ability for students with disabilities to receive access to technologies at the University of Illinois. By the creation of DRES, “The inventiveness and passion of the program that Nugent created did something even more important: it made these innovations commonplace, first on the university campus and eventually, across the nation and many parts of the world.”

Lab Reflection –

Questions –

1. How do veterans play a role in the culture of the University and how does UofI make these student veterans feel welcomed culturally in the university?

2. What are the different programs and facilities in terms of policies and infrastructure that benefit the veteran community? How is their cultural experience?

Line of Inquiry –

There are a few things we could do to find out the answer to our questions – First research about the veteran community at UofI, find out RSOs that exist on campus for veterans, learn about the buildings that have been made for the Army and veterans. Interview veterans and learn about the facilities they enjoy as being part of the veteran community, also learn about their responsibilities as a veteran if any.

Pieces of Evidence –

#1 Geri Young | Who Are the Illini? 1:05-1:13

This video talks about the life of a veteran on campus. Geri Young is a veteran and she talks about night counseling with the veterans on campus, this is one of the examples of how the University has created policies to make veterans feel more welcome.

#2 Geri Young | Who Are the Illini? 0:20-0:45

This part of the same video talks about the cultural differences and how the univeristy diversity helps her feel welcome at the university, it also talks about the age and cultural gap.

#3 Chez Veteran Centre

https://www.library.illinois.edu/mappinghistory/campus-map-timeline/

The map contains the Chez Veteran Centre in Urbana, which was established by the University to give support to the veteran population at the University.

#4 Veteran Memorial Project

A project found in the digital archives to honor the men and women of the University of Illinois who made the supreme sacrifice as members of the U. S. Armed Forces during our nation’s wars and conflicts so that we may live and learn in freedom.

Analysis –

– I learned about the extensive archives that the univeristy keeps about all its landmark policies and achievements. It was interesting to learn how the University supports its veteran community. The digital archives were a rich source of information that depicted clearly how students think about the facilities provided by the university. The gallery provided students with the opportunity to learn in detail about the heritage that is present at UofI.

– My line of inquiry was all answered by the evidence that I was able to find through these archives. It helped me learn a lot about the life of veterans at the Univeristy both in terms of the benefits, policies they enjoy and also the cultural perspectives of veterans. Learning about the Memorial Project, the Chez Veterans center, and watching the Geri Young video taught me about how age and past life experiences also play a role in the university experience. I also learned how the university awards the countries heros with amazing policies, and infrastructure such as the Chez Center.

Week 01 – Lab Reflection

1a) Innovation + Society Lab Reflection
I am currently doing this semester virtually from my home in India. It took me a while to find
something innovative in my immediate surrounding that I had never thought or appreciated
before. While thinking about it one of the things that came to my mind was how cables are
managed for my computer and the internet in my house.
Unlike America, in India internet cables are pulled up manually in buildings, there is no proper
cable management built into the buildings especially the ones that were constructed several
years ago. However, when we were renovating our house we knew how ugly cables look when
left unmanaged. In the first picture as you can see, that’s my setup. From the outside it looks
like a very minimal amount of cables for a complex computer setup. However, that’s all because
of the construction that went behind managing the abundance of cables that are used for the
wifi and the computer.
As you can see in the next few pictures, to manage the number of cables we had to cut a wedge
so that the cables could go through the drawers up to the router, monitor and the speakers. We
then punched a hole into the table top and covered it with a cable managing holder to get all the
cables above the table without it showing and making the space look cluttered and ugly.
Another interesting observation was that the internet cables from the cable provider come from
behind the furniture, and are hidden, that makes the space look beautiful as well as does a
great job hiding unnecessary cables.
Although cable management is an innovation we would not usually appreciate, however when
you think about it, you realise how complex and beautiful the construction really is.
As compared to my house, in America the buildings are made keeping cable and wire
management in mind. The internet providers have their cables already pulled in from within the
walls so that to connect to wifi all a person has to do is find a round outlet and connect his/her
router to it. That’s another brilliant way of managing cables and keeping them uncluttered.