Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography

“Congressional Record: University of Illinois Centennial” Committee on the Centennial,
University of Illinois, 15 October 2009, pp. 73-76.

The main idea behind this record in my opinion was to put light on the International impact that
the University of Illinois has made in front of the Illinois representatives. The intended audience
is for the Illinois House of Representatives. The purpose of the text is to bring a change in policy
and legislation. The author has been a house representative himself, thus providing credibility to
his text. Henry talks about the immense scholastic and societal achievement of the university,
he also talks about the great impact the students and alum have made throughout the globe.

Geiger, Roger. The History of American Higher Education: Learning and Culture from the Founding to World War II.Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2015.

This study is intended to enlarge and extend appreciation of that history from the beginnings of
colonial colleges to the eve of World War II. Specifically, it seeks to explain how institutions of
higher education changed over time in response to their contemporary contexts. The intended
audience are scholars and postgraduate researchers majoring in education in my opinion.
Geiger is a Professor of Education at the Pennsylvania State University. He has done extensive
research in the field and is also a professor.

Schroeder, Paul. “Why?” The Daily Illini, 15 March 1968.

The main idea behind the article is to begin a movement to bring out modernised education at
the University of Illinois. Through his speech Schroeder tries to encourage his fellow students to
build new education for the future. Paul Schroeder is a representative of the Education Reform
Committee and a student at the University of Illinois. He believes that the university is not doing
enough to bring modern ways of teaching and the syllabus is not appropriate. The intended
audience for this speech is students, faculty, and administration of the University of Illinois.

Leslie J. Reagan, “Timothy Nugent: ‘Wheelchair Students’ and the Creation of the Most Accessible Campus in the World,” in The University of Illinois: Engine of Innovation, edited by Frederick E. Hoxie.

The main idea of this article is to talk about the creation, and the struggles and barriers towards
DRES and the disabled population at the University. The vision and dedication of one man, Tim
Nugent—together with the persistence of the university’s disabled students in making DRES a
reality. In 1948 admitting people with disabilities, specifically “wheelchair students,” to the state’s
flagship university and treating them like any other student on campus seemed strange
and questionable. However, with the struggles of Tim Nugent, and the student population this
dream was soon realised.

Steven E. Brown, “Breaking Barriers: The Pioneering Disability Students Services Program at
the University of Illinois: 1948-1960,” in The History of Discrimination in US Education, edited by
Eileen H. Tamura (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008)

The article is mainly about how the barriers mentioned in the above text were broken by Tim
Nugent, how DRES played a role in doing so, and how they went about making disabled
students accepted physically and culturally on campus. Those with disabilities were cast aside,
like criminals, away from public view. In 1948 a determined young man named Tim Nugent
intended to overturn such thinking. From 1948 to 1960, he shepherded a program that
succeeded in shatter-ing long standing, pervasive institutional, physical, economic,
psycholog-ical, and other barriers that marginalized and ostracized people with disabilities. As
the first director of the University of Illinois DisabilityResources and Educational Services
(DRES) program, Nugent did everything in his power to ensure its survival. He battled
prevalent nega-tive social attitudes, university bureaucracy, and an inaccessible environ-ment.
He cajoled, badgered, and encouraged many students who were unprepared for postsecondary
success.

Commemorative Book Preparation and Publication Committee. Expanding Horizons: A History of the First 50 Years of the Division of Rehabilitation-Education Services at the University of Illinois. Roxford DT Pub., 1998.

This excerpt is mainly about how DRES was established and how it came to be. It talks about the father and creator of DRES, the challenges both social and economic that DRES had to encounter in its initial years. It also talks about the role that DRES played in the lives of disabled population at the university.

Chapter 3: Joy Ann Williamson-Lott, Black Power on Campus: The University of Illinois, 1965-75. Champaign: University of Illinois Press, 2013

The author talks about the problems and issues relating to recruitment, acceptance of the black population, and retaining students — the article puts spotlight onto the various dynamics of the challenges that required the help and acceptance of many University scholastic departments and staff.

Pages 77 – 84: Joy Ann Williamson-Lott, “Clarence Shelley: The Campaign to Diversify the University” in The University of Illinois: Engine of Innovation, edited by Frederick E. Hoxie

The article talks about the history of black students at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, it talks about how the history is a complicated one that involves discrimination, racism, protest, and resilience. Because the African American community maintained an unwavering belief in the importance of education, It shows how the university have initiated the various movements for liberation.

Pages 219 – 223: Frederick E. Hoxie and Michael Hughes, “Nevada Street: A Center for the Study of Race and Ethnicity,” in The University of Illinois: Engine of Innovation, edited by Frederick E. Hoxie

The cultural houses on Nevada Street showcase the dedication for diversification and equality. They are grounds for student activists and faculty on the University of Illinois campus to have safe spaces and support for students of varying ethnic backgrounds.  The audience intended for this work would be students, and professors.

Metz, Michael. “Radicals in the Heartland: The 1960s Student Protest Movement at the University of Illinois.” University of Illinois Press, 2019.

            The main idea behind this excerpt was to discuss and inform the readers about the student protests that were occurring at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. There were discussions about how freedom of speech came to be at the university how during the 1960s it was a huge problem. Metz talks about how – “We are all free in all respects save one; We are not free to tolerate the destruction of our freedom” His perspective as a student at the university provides first-hand experience of the protests. The intended audience are students because it is a more informative article and strongly talks about his beliefs.

Evans, Sara M. “Sons, Daughters, and Patriarchy: Gender and the 1968 Generation.” American Historical Review, 2009.

The main idea behind this excerpt is to inform the readers about how feminism came to be during the 1960s. It talks in detail about how women were treated and how lack of woman leadership led to the unjust treatment of women and the dire need for principles and ideals of feminism. Sara M. Evans is a professor of history at the University of Minnesota. Since she has a lot of experience and has studied and researched in detail about this topic it makes her a credible source. The intended audience for this article is anyone interested the history of feminism especially young female readers.

Yang, Andrew. The War on Normal People: The Truth About America’s Disappearing Jobs. Hachette Books, 2018.

The main idea behind this book is to talk about what the Normal American looks like, delves deep into jobs and topics including technological change, automation, job displacement, the U.S. economy, and what Yang describes as the need for a UBI. The people of the United sates in my opinion are the main audience of this book. This book talks about a lot of topics that are central to Yang’s 2020 presidential campaign. Yang discusses job displacement and the shrinking of local economies, terming it the “Great Displacement”, which has been “the product of financialization, globalization, and technologization”. He talks about topics like how automation will displace many jobs, etc.

Prutzer, Ned. “The BCL and the Cybernetics Moment.” The Biological Computer Laboratory, 20 Jan. 2019, https://scalar.usc.edu/works/the-biological-computer-laboratory/the-bcl-and-the-cybernetics-moment?path=index.

This is a information website on the Biological Computer Lab. It consists of various intriguing artifacts and snippets of information about the BCL. Ned Prutzer is the creator of this website a PHD student who made it as research. I believe the intended audience are Students and Professors alike.

Hutchinson, Jamie. “Heinz Von Foerster and the Biological Computer Laboratory.” “Nerve Center” of the Cybernetic World, http://bcl.ece.illinois.edu/hutchinson/index.htm.

The website is an old fashioned HTML website that talks in detail about how the BCL came to be, it talks about several features of the BCL. It also delves into detail about cybernetics and sheds light upon Heinz Von Foster, talks about his contributions in the field of cybernetics and BCL. The intended audience for this website are students and faculty interested in the history of Bly Manor.

Anderson, Bethany. “Heinz von Foerster and the Biological Computer Laboratory: A Cybernetics Odyssey.” Exhibits, University of Illinois Archives, 6 December 2016, https://archives.library.illinois.edu/blog/heinz-von-foerster-and-the-bcl/.

The main idea behind this website is to act as a culmination of information on Heinz Von Foster, BCL and the practice of Cybernetics. The intended audience for this blog are students, faculty members and anyone who is interested in learning about these topics.

Dear, Brian. “Remembering the Future.” PLATO History, PLATO History Foundation, 2010, platohistoy.org/.

The platohistory.org website is the home of the PLATO History Foundation and the archive for information about the history and significance of the PLATO computer system and its online community.The Foundation’s principal focus is to advance the public awareness of the history, significance, and importance of the PLATO computer system and its online community, and to tell the story of the people who designed, built, and used the system.

Don Bitzer, “Use of CBE for the Handicapped,” American Annals of the Deaf 124.5 (1979)

The main idea of the excerpt from the book “Use of CBE for the Handicapped” by Don Bitzer is to talk about how computer network systems in education like the PLATO have aided in education for the Handicapped. It talks about how handicapped students can use PLATO features like narration for aiding in learning. The main audience for this book are educators and researchers in my opinion.

Lamont, Valerie. “New Directions for the teaching Computer: Citizen Participation in Community Planning.” Computer-based Education Research Laboratory, 1973.

The main idea behind this article is talk about how computer network systems like the PLATO can be used with helping and working on Community Planning. It talks about how using these systems the whole process becomes much less tedious and time consuming. The main audience in my opinion are the administrators that fun these community planning projects, researchers as well as students who are interested in the field.

Weber, Larry. “Blind Student Power.” Technograph, 1968.

The main idea behind this excerpt is to talk about how PLATO helped learning for blind students at the university. It talks in detail about the hardware, and how the system functions to help blind students study using PLATO. The hardware used in the conventional PLATO system consists of a keyset which the student uses to “talk” to the computer and a display screen which the computer uses to “talk” to the student. The main audience of this excerpt are students interested in learning about PLATO, also blind students informing them about the innovation of such features in the computer system.

Harvard U Program on Survey Research: Tip Sheet on Question Wording

This article is a guide to write proper research surveys, it consists of techniques and tips to write professional surveys. It has been accredited by Harvard University hence I believe it is a credible guide to write surveys. It consists of explanatory examples to better understand how surveys should be written. It also consists of a bibliography of all the sources which can be considered while making our own survey.

OECD (2012), “Good Practices in Survey Design Step-by-Step”, in Measuring Regulatory Performance: A Practitioner’s Guide to Perception Surveys, OECD Publishing, Paris.

Good practice methodologies considerably improve the quality of results and help avoid pitfalls. This chapter explains good practice through sequential, step-by-step guidance that can be used to design a perception survey. It provides advice on how to define survey objectives and the target group, draft survey questions, pilot and re-adjust a questionnaire, select respondents and data collection methods, run the survey, and analyse the results. (Good Practices Abstract)

Annotated Bibliography

Geiger, Roger. The History of American Higher Education: Learning and Culture from the Founding to World War II.Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2015. 

This book informs the reader about higher education, including interpretations of the Morrill Land Grant. Roger Geiger is a credible author and source from Penn. State University. His research at a high-level institution gives him a wide range of credibility, intending to teach scholars who are studying education. His pin-point ideas about education were straightforward. 

“Congressional Record: University of Illinois Centennial” Committee on the Centennial, University of Illinois, 15 October 2009, pp. 73-76. 

David Henry interprets the ambition that is driven into students at the university and other land-grant universities and delivered a speech as the President of the University of Illinois that drove innovation. From there, he thanks the innovations of his superiors while looking toward the future, clarifying the significance of university education and pushing toward the growth of the University for it to sustain these goals and promises of career preparation and an incentive to be successful. 

Schroeder, Paul. “Why?” The Daily Illini, 15 March 1968. Paul encourages students and the University of Illinois to build new education for the future. He is a representative of the Education Reform Committee, meaning he has a good background in educational reform in higher education. He wrote this speech towards students, faculty, and administration through his own innovation. This is reflected by the author’s tone when he encourages all members of the University to join in his ambition to rebuild the education system in Illinois.

Leslie J. Reagan, “Timothy Nugent: ‘Wheelchair Students’ and the Creation of the Most Accessible Campus in the World,” in The University of Illinois: Engine of Innovation, edited by Frederick E. Hoxie

The main purpose of this source is the innovation of Tim Nugent on pushing for a better environment for students with disabilities. Its intended audience is the general public, but also to major institutions that still need to implement a better learning environment for students with disabilities. The author, Leslie Reagan, is a well-known professor here at the University of Illinois, making her a credible source. She makes the conclusion that DRES students deserve more accountability and encouragement, as displayed from Tim Nugent.

Steven E. Brown, “Breaking Barriers: The Pioneering Disability Students Services Program at the University of Illinois: 1948-1960,” in The History of Discrimination in US Education, edited by Eileen H. Tamura (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008)

The main purpose of this source is to inform the reader of the discrimination of students with disabilities. Brown writes, teaches, talks, and brings life to the mission of the organization he co-founded, the Institute on Disability Culture, which promotes pride in the history, activities, and cultural identity of individuals with disabilities throughout the world.

Chapter 3: Joy Ann Williamson-Lott, Black Power on Campus: The University of Illinois, 1965-75. Champaign: University of Illinois Press, 2013

Pages 77 – 84: Joy Ann Williamson-Lott, “Clarence Shelley: The Campaign to Diversify the University” in The University of Illinois: Engine of Innovation, edited by Frederick E. Hoxie

Joy Ann Williamson-Lott is a professor of the history of education at the University of Washington College of Education, making her a credible source. Her primary research examines the relationship between social movements and institutions of higher education. Her book on the University of Illinois deciphers the interaction between students and administrators that created the successful support systems which are made possible on today’s college campuses.

Pages 219 – 223: Frederick E. Hoxie and Michael Hughes, “Nevada Street: A Center for the Study of Race and Ethnicity,” in The University of Illinois: Engine of Innovation, edited by Frederick E. Hoxie

Frederick Hoxie is a professor emeritus at the University of Illinois and was a former professor of history, law, and American Indian Studies. His current research focuses on indigenous political activism in the United States. He is a credible source because he is trained as a social and political historian and served at Illinois for fifteen years.

Pages 32 – 81: Michael Metz, Radicals in the Heartland: The 1960s Student Protest Movement at the University of Illinois, U. of Illinois Press, 2019.

Michael V. Metz gives an insightful and informational analysis of events that shaped each year of the 1960s at the University of Illinois Champaign-Urbana campus. He took part in the student movement and wrote about the activism and courage of the students. He is a credible source because he made the information possible by interviews, archives, and newspaper records to show a movement in demands for free speech, inspired by a movement for civil rights.

Sara M. Evans. (2009) Sons, Daughters, and Patriarchy: Gender and the 1968 Generation. American Historical Review. 

Sara Evans is a professor in the history department at the University of Minnesota. She has also worked as the editor of Feminist Studies. The purpose of her writing is to inspire women to feel confident about themselves and to encourage them to use their freedom of speech. Through her efforts, she has helped to establish the University of Minnesota as a major center for women’s history and women’s studies. She is also recognized as a leader in feminist scholarship.

Chapters 3 – 7, Yang, Andrew. The War on Normal People: The Truth About America’s Disappearing Jobs. Hachette Books: 2018.

Andrew Yang is an entrepreneur and former Presidential candidate. His source is credible and it uses different types of evidence involving numbers, data, and proven statistics from the past to present. According to his biography, Yang also wants to expand access to mental health services, advocating for an increase in providers working in rural areas, requiring insurance companies to give providers an incentive to use AI for more efficient healthcare. Reading his text provided me with a different point of view and gave me key information on how to make use of data and statistics.

Ned Prutzer, The Biological Computer Laboratory

Ned Prutzer is a PhD student in Communications and Media at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. He is a credible source as he earned his Master’s degree in Communication, Culture and Technology and received his Bachelor’s degree in English and American Studies. His research focuses on the intersections of new media and cultural memory in relation to conceptualizations of art, knowledge, and resistance. The purpose of his writing portrays the innovation of technology.

Jamie Hutchinson, “Nerve center of the cybernetic world: Heinz von Foerster and the Biological Computer Laboratory.”

Jamie Hutchinson is a publications editor at UIUC. This source helps to explore connections between these four individuals—Heinz von Foerster, W. Ross Ashby, Warren McCulloch, and Norbert Wiener—and to better understand how they influenced each other and the context in which their ideas evolved. It will also enable us to shed light on hidden connections between documentation within their research archives. I believe this source is credible after analyzing the significance of cybernetics.

Bethany Anderson, “Heinz von Foerster and The Biological Computer Laboratory: A Cybernetics Odyssey,” (https://archives.library.illinois.edu/blog/heinz-von-foerster-and-thebcl/) University of Illinois Archives blog

Bethany Anderson is a University of Illinois Archives faculty member who talks about the story of Heinz von Foerster and how he developed the BCL throughout his career. She is credible because she includes many different examples and pictures that displayed his work and the impact that it had on the University. Over nearly two decades the BCL created a unique interdisciplinary research space for cybernetics.

Brian Dear, PLATO History Blog

Brian Dear is a credible source that talks about the history of the PLATO computer system. He justifies each of his stories and articles on how it has impacted the community as well as students across the nation. He also uses pictures and data to add to his website to reveal more of what shaped PLATO and its accessible features.

Don Bitzer, “Use of CBE for the Handicapped,” American Annals of the Deaf 124.5 (1979)

Bitzer was a professor at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign when he was asked to build a computerized learning system. The result was PLATO, a networked and interactive teaching system that introduced online concepts. He is a credible source because he made a career of improving classroom productivity and education by using computer technology.

Pages 149-162: Valerie Lamont, “New Directions for the Teaching Computer: Citizen Participation in Community Planning, ”Technological Forecasting and Social Change5 (1973)

Pages 17-20: Larry Weber, “Blind Student Power,” Technograph (October 1968)

Larry Weber is the Chairman & CEO of Racepoint Global, an advanced marketing services agency, a well-known expert in PR and marketing services, and an author, making him a credible source. According to his biography, Larry enjoys helping global brands and emerging companies harness social media strategies to enhance brand reputation, create and extend partnerships, and increase demand generation.

Harvard U Program on Survey Research: Tip Sheet on Question Wording

This source justifies ways to enhance the creation of a survey. It includes other sources that provide examples of other common and pre-existing surveys and pinpoints specific strategies that will make the survey better. I trust this source and its knowledge because it comes from the prestigious Harvard University and portrays exactly how questions should be worded and how concise answers should be to them.

OECD (2012), “Good Practices in Survey Design Step-by-Step”, in Measuring Regulatory Performance: A Practitioner’s Guide to Perception Surveys, OECD Publishing, Paris.

This source informs the reader through sequential, step-by-step guidance that can be used to design a perception survey. It provides advice on how to define survey objectives and the target group, create survey questions, editing and re-evaluating a questionnaire, determine respondents and data collection methods, how to run the survey, and analyze the results. It’s important to know all this before conducting a real survey that will be used for research to improve the quality of results and avoiding obstacles.

Allen Hall History (1994)

Unit One is an academic program located in Allen Hall and is a part of the University of Illinois Residence Hall system. Unit One is co-sponsored by the Vice Chancellors for Academic and Student Affairs. The goal of Unit One is to provide an enriched academic program that also addresses the personal and developmental needs of its students while providing challenges and alternatives that are not usually available to lower division undergraduates at the University. In 1983, the Council on Program Evaluation (COPE) issued its evaluation of UNIT ONE’s three year reorganization.

Proposal to Encourage Undergraduate Education Development at UIUC (1972)

This proposal is a letter from Richard Smock, Frank Duff, King Broadrick, and Roland Holmes to the Staff Council of the University of Illinois, in March 1972. This letter seeks to reform the current policies and curriculums created at the University of Illinois. The goal is to create new structural changes that reflect the high priority placed on undergraduate education.

Annotated Bibliography

Anderson, Bethany. “Heinz von Foerster and the Biological Computer Laboratory: A Cybernetics Odyssey.” Exhibits, University of Illinois Archives, 6 December 2016, https://archives.library.illinois.edu/blog/heinz-von-foerster-and-the-bcl/.

            The purpose of this blog is to inform the reader about the history of Heinz von Foerster and the creation of the Biological Computer Laboratory. Bethany Anderson is a blogger for the University of Illinois Archives. She has written other blogs on the website. The audience intended for this blog is undergraduates and graduate students of the University of Illinois. The style in this blog is intended to create a story about Heinz von Foerster and his push for the BCL.

Bitzer, Donald. “Use of CBE for the Handicapped.” American Annals of the Deaf, Gallaudet University Press, 1979.

            The purpose fo this chapter in American Annals of the Deaf is to inform the reader about the PLATO project’s impact on the handicapped. Donald Bitzer is an electrical engineer that has created a computer-based education system that could help handicapped students. The audience intended for this chapter in American Annal of the Deaf is researchers in technological-based education systems that want to improve the systems meant for the handicapped.

Brown, Steven E. “Breaking Barriers: The Pioneering Disability Students Services Program at the University of Illinois: 1948-1960.” Palgrave Macmillan, 2008.

            The purpose of this source is to inform the reader about the new disability service programs that made the University of Illinois a pioneer in shattering barriers that marginalized people with disabilities. Steven E. Brown is the co-founder of the Institute on Disability Culture. This provides insight into the history and cultural identity of people and students with disabilities. The audience intended for this source would be members of the University of Illinois because the students, faculty, alumni, and administration should learn about this part of Illinois history.

Commemorative Book Preparation and Publication Committee. Expanding Horizons: A History of the First 50 Years of the Division of Rehabilitation-Education Services at the University of Illinois. Roxford DT Pub., 1998.

            The purpose of this source is to inform the reader about the first fifty years of the Division of Rehabilitation-Education Services (DRES) at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The intended audience for this source would be the scholars of the University of Illinois. The style is intended to educate and inform the reader about historical DRES. There is a bias in this source because it assumes that the time between 1940-50, people only had a negative attitude towards people with disabilities.

“Congressional Record: University of Illinois Centennial” Committee on the Centennial, University of Illinois, 15 October 2009, pp. 73-76.

            The purpose of this record is to inform the Illinois House of Representatives about the international impact the University of Illinois has made. The author of the speech is William L. Springer. He was the House representative for Illinois’s 22nd district. This emphasizes that the author is credible. The intended audience is for the Illinois House of Representatives. The speech was meant for a new policy or legislation. The author’s style is reflected by the intended audience because he tries to inform and persuade the House of Representatives.

Dear, Brian. “Remembering the Future.” PLATO History, PLATO History Foundation, 2010, platohistoy.org/.

            The purpose of this website is to archive the history of the PLATO computer system and the people who built and designed the system. The author, Brian Dear, is a tech entrepreneur and startup mentor that runs the website. This emphasizes that the author has a good understanding in technology and technological systems. This website is meant for tech enthusiasts and students researching about the PLATO computer system.

Evans, Sara M. “Sons, Daughters, and Patriarchy: Gender and the 1968 Generation.” American Historical Review, 2009.

            The purpose of this source is to educate readers about the rise of feminism in the 1960s and discuss the patriarchy. Sara M. Evans is a professor of history at the University of Minnesota. She has a lot of experience in the field which makes her a credible source. The audience for this work is most likely for scholars or professors because she goes into a lot of detail and focuses on writing the history.

Geiger, Roger. The History of American Higher Education: Learning and Culture from the Founding to World War II.Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2015.

            The purpose of this book is to inform the reader about the history of American higher education. Roger Geiger is a Professor of Education at the Pennsylvania State University. This gives him credibility because he is an established researcher and professor at a respected university. The intended audience would be scholars and researchers in education because he is informing the audience about the history of higher education.

Harrison, Chase. “Program on Survey Research.” Harvard University Press, 2007.

            The purpose of this document is to provide readers with tips on wording the questions in a survey or questionnaire. The author, Chase Harrison, is an Associate Director of the Harvard program of Survey Research in the Department of Government. The audience intended for this document are researchers interested in created surveys or questionnaires.

“History of the United States Army School of Military Aeronautics at the University of Illinois Urbana, Illinois.” School of Military Aeronautics, University of Illinois, 1918.

            The purpose of this source is to discuss the history of the School of Military Aeronautics at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The audience intended for this source is scholars and researchers interested in the history of the SMA. The tone of the work focuses on informing the audience about the development of the school at the University of Illinois.

Hoxie, Fredrick E and Michael Hughes. “Nevada Street: A Center for the Study of Race and Ethnicity.” University of Illinois Press, 2017.

            The purpose of this source is to inform the reader about the study of race and ethnicity at Nevada Street. Frederick E. Hoxie is a professor of social and political history. He focused the majority of his research on indigenous people in North America. The audience intended for this work would be students, scholars, and professors researching race and ethnicity in Nevada Street.

Howard, Jessie. “Summary of Replies to the Questions Sent to Illini in Service.” Provost’s Office, 1944.

            The purpose of this questionnaire is to collection information about the Illini in service and understand the replies of the students. Jessie Howard is the man who ran the questionaire and analyzed the data at the end of the source. The audience is researchers and members of the military because it provides important data regarding future plans for students going back to the University of Illinois after the war.

Hutchinson, Jamie. “Heinz Von Foerster and the Biological Computer Laboratory.” “Nerve Center” of the Cybernetic World, http://bcl.ece.illinois.edu/hutchinson/index.htm.

            The purpose of this website is to inform viewers of the website about Heinz Von Foerster and the Biological Computer Laboratory. Jamie Hutchinson is Publications Editor at the Grainger College of Electrical and Computer Engineering. His perspective as an editor provides readers with more information about the Biological Computer Laboratory and its creator. The audience intended for this website is electrical and computer engineering majors.

Johnston, Edward S. “History of the Military Department University of Illinois 1869-1921.” Reserve Officers’ Training Corps, University of Illinois, 1921.

            The purpose of this source is to discuss the history of the military department at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Edward S. Johnston is a professor of Military Science and Tactics at the University of Illinois. His credentials give him the perspective needed to talk about the ROTC. The audience intended for this source is cadets and other undergraduates that are a part of the military at the University of Illinois.

Lamont, Valerie. “New Directions for the teaching Computer: Citizen Participation in Community Planning.” Computer-based Education Research Laboratory, 1973.

            The purpose of this document is to inform readers about an experiment testing the feasibility of using the teaching computer for involving people in community planning. Valerie Lamont is the researcher conducting the experiment. The audience intended for this source are researchers and graduate students interested in the PLATO project and its impact on technological learning.

Metz, Michael. “Radicals in the Heartland: The 1960s Student Protest Movement at the University of Illinois.” University of Illinois Press, 2019.

            The purpose of this source is to discuss the student protests that were occurring at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Michael Metz took part in high tech marketing but he also participated in student protests in the 1960s. His perspective as a student at the university provides the first-hand experience of the protests. The audience intended for this source is most likely students because he uses timelines to help illustrate the movement.

OECD. “Good Practices in Survey Design Step-by-Step.” Measuring Regulatory Performance: A Practitioner’s Guide to perception Surveys, OCED Publishing, Paris, 2012.

            The purpose of this publication is to discuss good practices that help the quality of results and avoid problems with surveys. OECD is and organization that helps to stimulate economic growth and promotes world trade. The audience intended for this document is researchers that are interested in producing surveys that help to collect data.

Prutzer, Ned. “The BCL and the Cybernetics Moment.” The Biological Computer Laboratory, 20 Jan. 2019, https://scalar.usc.edu/works/the-biological-computer-laboratory/the-bcl-and-the-cybernetics-moment?path=index.

            The purpose of this website is to create an intriguing website that informs the viewers about the Biological Computer Laboratory. Ned Prutzer is a PhD student in Communications and Media at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. His perspective as a PhD student provides research experience on the Biological Computer Laboratory. The audience intended for this website is most likely for PhD students interested in the Biological Computer Laboratory.

Schroeder, Paul. “Why?” The Daily Illini, 15 March 1968.

            The purpose of this speech is to encourage his fellow students to build new education for the future. Paul Schroeder is a representative of the Education Reform Committee. This means he has a good background in educational reform in higher education. The intended audience for this speech is students, faculty, and administration of the University of Illinois. This is reflected by the author’s tone when he encourages all members of the University to join in his desire to reform the education system.

Reagan, Leslie J. “Timothy Nugent: ‘Wheelchair Students’ and the Creation of the Most Accessible Campus in the World.” University of Illinois Press, 2017.

            The purpose of this source is to inform the reader about the creation of DRES and the impact of Timothy Nugent’s vision made serving students with disabilities. Leslie J. Reagan is the author of the source. She is a professor in the Department of History at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Her diplomas and experience as a professor establish her credibility in this field. The audience intended for this source is scholars and historians because she discusses the development of organizations such as DRES.

Smock, Richard, et al. “A Proposal to Encourage Undergraduate Educational Development at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Campus.” Cruel Staff Council, 1972.

            The purpose of this document is to propose appointing an Associate Vice Chancellor for Undergraduate Education at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The authors of this document are Richard Smock, Frank Duff, King Broadrick, and Roland Holmes. They are the Council members representing this proposal to the CRUEL Staff Council. The audience intended for this document is the Staff Council members of CRUEL. The beginning of the document explains that it is for the Staff Council and the wording of the document is phrased for the members.

“Unit One History.” History of Unit One Living-Learning Community, University Housing, 1994, housing.illinois.edu/Living-Options/Living-Learning-Communities/Unit-One/traditions/history. 

            The purpose of this website is to inform students and alumni of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign about the Unit One Living-Learning Community. The audience intended for this website are students, alumni, and professors at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. This is the targetted audience because it talks about the university’s rich history. The website brings up notable Illinois faculty such as Chancellor Jack Pelteson.

Weber, Larry. “Blind Student Power.” Technograph, 1968.

            The purpose of this article is to empower blind students and establish more perfect learning conditions for engineering students. Larry Weber is a student that is a part of the university. This is important because it helps the author connect with other students. The audience intended for this article is students because he uses “we the students” as a way to include students in the piece.

Williamson-Lott, Joy Ann. “Black Power on Campus: The University of Illinois.” University of Illinois Press, 2013.

            The purpose of this source is to inform the reader about the impact African Americans made at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Joy-Ann Williamson is a professor of education at the University of Washington. The audience for this source is students and professors because it discusses the history of federal policies intended for racial reconciliation in the 1960s.

Williamson-Lott, Joy Ann. “Clarence Shelley: The Campaign to Diversify the University.” University of Illinois Press, 2017.

            The purpose of this source is to inform the reader about the University’s campaign to diversify the campus. Joy-Ann Williamson is also the author of this source. She is also the Dean of the University of Washington’s Graduate School in the College of Education. The audience intended for this work is for professors and students at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

Yang, Andrew. The War on Normal People: The Truth About America’s Disappearing Jobs. Hachette Books, 2018.

            The purpose of this book is to inform the readers about the causes for the decline in industrial jobs in the United States. Andrew Yang was a democratic presidential candidate who was known for his Universal Basic Income policy. The audience intended for this book is working class Americans in the United States. He targets the working class and explains the causes for the decline in paying jobs.

Annotated Bibliography

Bitzer, Donald. “Use of CBE for the Handicapped.” American Annals of the Deaf, Gallaudet University Press, 1979.

This chapter’s purpose is to illustrate the role and activities regarding using PLATO with those with disabilities. Donald Bitzer is an electrical engineer famous for pioneering and steering the direction of PLATO as a computer- assisted instruction system. The audience is other large entities looking to implement technological advances such as PLATO to educate students with disabilities.

Bankhead, Tekita, Otchere, Kimberly, and Williams, Ayanna. “Housing Is An Epicenter For Change: A Narrative of Students and Staff Championing Campus Social Change Movements.” Journal of College & University Student Housing. Vol. 43, Issue 3, 2017, p 80-91.

Through this article, Bankhead, Otchere, and Williams demonstrate the work of student activists and University housing to co-create positive social change for students of color. In doing so, they portray the University as a benevolent and supportive system for student activists and their need for change, especially come from their positions as staff leadership within the cultural and social justice spaces at the University.

Bragg, Debra, Durham, Brian, and McCambly, Heather. “Catching the Spark: Student Activism and Student Data as a Catalyst for Systemic Transformation.” Change, Vol. 48, Issue 3, 2016, p36-47.

As the faculty and administrators behind the Pathways to Results program, the authors are clearly trying to emphasize the program’s success and impact in achieving its goals of systemic transformation of the University of Illinois. The want the University of Illinois’ program to be a testament to their effectiveness as empathetic leaders as well as to teach other universities how they leveraged data in order to improve the experiences of people of color.

Brown, Steven E. “Breaking Barriers: The Pioneering Disability Students Services Program at the University of Illinois: 1948-1960.” Palgrave Macmillan, 2008.

Author Steven E. Brown demonstrates and explains the disability programs of the University that have made the University of Illinois one of the initial universities that was largely accessible for those with disabilities. The text is definitely lengthy and intended for academics to cite for their scholarly works. While this chapter is only one that focuses on the University of Illinois, other chapters likely did not focus on the U of I and instead focus on other topics.

Commemorative Book Preparation and Publication Committee. “Expanding Horizons: A History of the First 50 Years of the Division of Rehabilitation-Education Services at the University of Illinois.” Roxford DT Pub., 1998.

This source covers the history and milestones of the first 50 years of the influential Division of Rehabilitation-Education Services (DRES) at the University of Illinois. Its intended audience is likely the University’s academics, DRES community, and the public, because its lighthearted language and wide usage of photos would be generally appealing and digestible for wide audiences. There is bias in this piece as it was put out by DRES itself and likely wanted to portray everything the University did as fair and favorable toward the disability community.

Evans, Sara M. “Sons, Daughters, and Patriarchy: Gender and the 1968 Generation.” American Historical Review, 2009.

Evans highlights the history of the gender movement in regards to the patriarchy as a dichotomy between men and women, especially as it related to and was seen in 1968. Her audience is likely academic as it includes extensive citations and footnotes. Her work is unique in that it focuses predominantly on gender in terms of the 1968 generation, rather than other social movements, and in its international sense.

Geiger, Roger. “The History of American Higher Education.” Princeton University Press, 2015.

Through his book, the author Roger Geiger attempts to summarize a wide array of history involving American higher education, including the effects and interpretations of the Morrill Land Grant of 1862. His extensive documentation and survey of the landscape is definitely fit for a scholar necessitating adequate citations, and this comes across in his verbose tone and comprehensive descriptions. All in all, he seeks to demonstrate how the Morrill Land Grant meant a wide range of things for private to public to midwestern to eastern universities, but nonetheless, it pushed forward the popularity of education in the United States, even if that meant succumbing to external pressures and not quite meeting its mark of an education for the masses.

Harrison, Chase. “Program on Survey Research.” Harvard University Press, 2007.

In this document, Harrison intends to outline best practice and advice for research survey design. The author is the Associate Director of the Harvard Program on Survey Research, which is an interdisciplinary scientific program that facilitates research and instruction in the theory and practice of survey research. This document is intended to be introductory to survey design and accessible for non-academics to enter survey design.

Henry, David, and Springer, William. “University of Illinois Centennial.” Congressional Record, 1968.

In a speech he delivered as the President of the University of Illinois, David Henry outlines the immense scholastic and societal achievement of the university and other land-grant universities as well as its students over the past century since its founding. From there, he thanks the innovations of his predecessors while looking toward the future, emphasizing the ongoing importance of a university education, and pushing toward growth of the University in order for it to sustain these goals and promises of career preparation and democracy for Illinois and the rest of the country.

“Heinz von Foerster and the Biological Computer Laboratory: A Cybernetics Odyssey.” Exhibits, University of Illinois Archives, 6 December 2016. archives.library.illinois.edu/blog/heinz-von-foerster-and-the-bcl.

The purpose of this archives blog post is to describe and give a brief overview of Heinz Foerster and the Biological Computer Laboratory. The author, Bethany Anderson, is a blogger for the archives at the University of Illinois. The blog post is intended to be accessible and interesting to students and the general public curious about the BCL.

Hutchinson, Jamie. “Heinz Von Foerster and the Biological Computer Laboratory.” “Nerve Center” of the Cybernetic World. http://bcl.ece.illinois.edu/hutchinson/index.htm.

The purpose of this webpage is to showcase the history of Heinz and the Biological Computer Laboratory in a technically robust format. The author, Jamie Hutchinson, is an editor within the Grainger College of Engineering’s Electrical and Computer Engineering department. The webpage is likely intended to be referenced or accessed by electrical engineering and technical students and academics seeking a brief overview of the BCL and cybernetics.

Hoxie, Frederick E., and Hughes, Michael. “Nevada Street: A Center for the Study of Race and Ethnicity.” University of Illinois Press, 2017.

As Hoxie and Hughes highlight in their short article, the cultural houses on Nevada Street are living evidence of the dedication since the 1960s of student activists and faculty on the University of Illinois campus to have safe spaces and support for students of varying ethnic backgrounds. While the authors conclude that the creation of these cultural houses and their resultant programs are testimony to the power of activism and protests, there should be more research and metrics about the success and popularity of these programs in order to successfully justify if the original demands of student activists have been met.

Lamont, Valerie. “New Directions for the teaching Computer: Citizen Participation in Community Planning.” Computer-based Education Research Laboratory, 1973.

The purpose of the document is to describe the author’s experience using PLATO for community planning, and in the process of doing so, highlighting PLATO’s viability as a community planning tool. Valerie Lamont was the researcher carrying out the experiment, who was one of the early students and adopters of PLATO. The audience is researchers and technologists interested in civic organizing methods.

Metz, Michael. “Radicals in the Heartland: The 1960s Student Protest Movement at the University of Illinois.” University of Illinois Press, 2019.

This source discusses the student protest and activism movements the University of Illinois during the 1960s. Michael Metz was a UIUC student during that time period, and thus, his perspective and recanting likely has influences from having lived through it as a student. His audience is likely other U of I alumni who also lived through that time period as well as academics and non-academics who are simply curious about the history of student activism at the University.

OECD, “Good Practices in Survey Design Step-by-Step.” Measuring Regulatory Performance: A Practitioner’s Guide to perception Surveys, OECD Publishing, Paris, 2012.

The purpose of this document is to provide a deep-dive into the art of research survey design. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is an intergovernmental economic organization founded to stimulate economic progress and world trade. The audience is researchers and academics seeking to surveys calibrated to an internationally accepted standard.

Prutzer, Ned. “The Biological Computer Laboratory.” The Biological Computer Laboratory, 20 Jan 2019. scalar.usc.edu/works/the-biological-computer-laboratory/the-bcl-and-the-cybernetics-moment?path=index.

The purpose of this website is to reveal the story of the Biological Computer Laboratory through a story-like manner in order to appeal to wider and more diverse audiences interested in research, such as undergraduate students. The author is a PhD student in Communications and Media at the University of Illinois.

Reagan, Leslie J. “Timothy Nugent: ‘Wheelchair Students’ and the Creation of the Most Accessible Campus in the World.” University of Illinois Press, 2017.

This source provides an overview of the initial years of DRES and Timothy Nugent’s influential effects on the University and its disability community in making large progress toward wide-spread accessibility. At the same time, this piece likely shows bias in favor of Tim Nugent as he is largely revered by the University nowadays and this piece was printed by the University of Illinois press. Regardless, the author justifies his rationale and is able to showcase that some of Nugent’s work was met with initial criticism by those with disabilities too.

“Remembering the Future.” PLATO History, PLATO History Foundation, 2010. www.platohistory.org.

The purpose of this blog is to highlight anecdotes from PLATO’s history and creation. The main author, Brian Dear, is a longtime tech entrepreneur and founder that has previously worked worked in computer-baed education including with the PLATO system. His tone is more casual and approachable, especially with the blog-based format of the sitee.

Schroeder, Paul. “Why?” The Daily Illini, 15 Mar 1968.

Paul Schroeder is a self-proclaimed disappointed student who has spent his last four years at the University of Illinois and had been chosen to deliver a speech at the Centennial Convocation. He feels that the University has failed him and his fellow students, because the education does not meet the demands of the students to push critical modern thought and support retrospection and its outlined changes. Schroeder’s call to action is one to his fellow students as well as university faculty and administrators: join together and rebuild education so that it can prepare the next generation of leaders.

Williamson, Joy Ann. “Black Power on Campus: The University of Illinois, 1965-75.” University of Illinois Press, 2017.

Through this chapter in a scholarly book, Williamson explains the history of the Special Educational Opportunities Program (SEOP), which was the University of Illinois’ proposed solution to take affirmative action in order to recruit more disadvantaged students, especially Blacks. The author highlights issues with recruitment, acceptance, and retention of these students — showcasing how it was multi-faceted challenge that required the help and acceptance of many departments and staff within the University.

Williamson, Joy Ann. “The Campaign to Diversify the University.” University of Illinois Press, 2017.

Through this look into the history of Black students at the University of Illinois, the author explains the history of Black students and student life since the early 1900s through the 1970s, while also highlighting a few modern events as well. The author does this in order to explain how Black students specifically in the 1960s and 1970s demanded changes and how that ultimately resulted in policies and initiatives that have benefited Black students and faculty since. At the same time, the author highlights certain opposition and vitriol that these groups faced in gaining acceptance.

Yang, Andrew. The War on Normal People: The Truth About America’s Disappearing Jobs. Hachette Books, 2018.

Throughout his book, Andrew Yang highlights the role of automation on the disappearance of jobs and the need for Americans to adapt to this. Andrew Yang is known for being a candidate in the 2020 Democratic presidential primaries and for being an executive at a test prep company as well as Venture for America, a program that gives two-year fellowships for those seeking a start-up experience. This book became the basis for his Democratic campaign and the agenda he ran on, which highlighted the need for Americans to adapt to automation, and thus, it can be said that it may be less rigorous in statistics but strong in convincing rhetoric for the general public — though likely well-educated — that may be reading it.