Week 04 – Lab + Reading Response

  1. The Latinx Resilience Network is a mental health support and educational network for Latinx students at the University of Illinois. It educates students and faculty about mental health awareness and resources, trains students to be peer coordinators and listeners, and fosters Latinx success on campus. This happens through a Latinx Resilience Certificate Workshops or through taking LLS 396: Latinx Mental Health Topics. The network itself officially began in Spring 2014 after more than a year of discussions, and it was created with the support of Veronica M. Kann (Assistant Director of La Casa Cultural Latina) and Alicia P. Rodriguez (Associate Director of the Department of Latina/Latino Studies), along with support from a Strategic Initiative Grant from Student Affairs.
  2. In order to get institutional support, the program founders had to prove that there was a pressing need for Latinx students specifically to receive and give mental health support through a program such as this and that students would likely support it if it were to exist. It rose through the identification, likely through interviews and surveys, that many Latinx students face additional challenges and stress before and when going to college through the increased pressure of more responsibilities, such as translation and paying the bills, or of coming from cultures that stigmatized mental health and underserved schools that could not support them. Through historical documents, it can be seen that UIUC remains a predominantly white institution, and many URM feel pressure that they were only accepted out of “affirmative action,” while remaining perfectly capable as is. 
  3. Research: 
    1. Archives: Document that shows that Latinx historically have tended to come from underserved schools that did not have the resources to teach them how to identify such challenges and that their cultures tend to stigmatize it. Document that shows the relationship between mental health resources and the affluence of a school. 
    2. Interviews: Talk to Latinx students about mental health and its position or disregard in Latinx culture. Talk about the struggles and familial pressures they had growing up and in culture and how they tried to address them.
      1. What is your experience with mental health challenges?
      2. How do your family and culture view mental health?
      3. Who do you go to for help?
    3. Survey Design:
      1. What percentage of students at the University of Illinois identify as Latinx?
        1. 2.4%
        2. 4.5%
        3. 6.3%
        4. 8.1%
        5. 9.3%
        6. 11.5%
        7. 13.2%
      2. Do you receive mental health services from a campus resource?
        1. Yes, I receive help from The Counseling Center.
        2. Yes, I receive help from McKinley Health Center.
        3. Yes, I receive help from DRES.
        4. Yes, I receive help from some combination of the above.
        5. No, I used to receive help from one of those resources, but I no longer continue to do so.
        6. No, I receive off-campus help.
        7. No, I do not receive mental health services.
      3. Do you think the University of Illinois should support a mental health support and educational network for Latinx students at the University of Illinois?
        1. Strongly disagree
        2. Partially disagree
        3. Slightly disagree
        4. Neutral
        5. Slightly favor
        6. Partially favor
        7. Strongly favor
  4. This program has likely faced challenges in funding, because naturally many mental health resources and programs for minority students lack funding. They would also have to prove that this program warrants a unique enough cause and situation so that it would not be a part of a broader university effort rather than be Latinx focused. It does not indicate anyone being opposed to it, but definitely student and faculty support and awareness throughout the years is necessary so that it remains warranted and funded. It also tip-toes around other on-campus mental health resources, so faculty and students had to prove that those were not enough to address mental health among Latinx students.
  5. The other needs that are unaddressed is that the program innately puts a lot of pressure onto Latinx students to seek out and become the peer mental health facilitators and listeners for their friends. This may be favorable, because a lot of times, people choose to turn to their friends at odd hours of the day or simply trust their friends more. However, this largely ignores the fact that the University generally does not support any of their students enough, Latinx or not, through current mental health resources, and the program seems to be the impetus on students to be the change when a lot of times, their peers even through certificate workshops and taking a class may not know enough as a trained and devoted mental health professional. Especially on Latinx students, the program may be used as justification that Latinx students are receiving enough help when it also puts the burden on students to take their workshops and classes even if they may not have time to do so. In general, providing grander mental health resources and support for all of campus through trained and full-time professionals would probably do the most help, though that takes a lot of funding that the University is not ready to address.

Reading Response

Throughout the 1960s and especially in its latter half, there were a series of social movements occurring throughout the United States and world. At UIUC itself, a lot of student activism support was present in The Daily Illini publications, as it sought to popularize and normalize such movements. The formation of key clubs such as the Dubois Club, Students for a Democratic Society, and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee all trumpeted and pressed for reform and change. As well, the campus president at the time, while initially dismissive, would meet with the faculty senate in order to finally recognize the DuBois Club (Metz 78). Internationally, men and women independently tried to overcome the barrier of societal’s norms for gender expression as it relates to power. While many men challenged patriarchal power, women challenged the patriarchy and gender hierarchy itself (Evans 338). Politically, many Americans were scared of the threat of communism and socialism, which is why they were ardently opposed to the W.E.B. DuBois Club as its namesake was well-known as a Stalinist communist (Metz 39). Finally, barriers concerning free speech at UIUC, especially as it related to the Clabaugh Act which prevented UIUC officials rom extending university facilities to organizations deemed subversive or un-American, proved to be major contesting points for students.

  1. How do you feel the University of Illinois compares to other campuses in terms of student activism in the 1960s and also now?
  2. By learning more about the history of a time you lived through, how does that change or validate how you felt during those events?
  3. To what extent do you think these movements were intersectional and inclusive of various backgrounds and identities?
  4. Do you think the student movements were successful at UIUC? How do you think they could have been more successful?
  5. What do you think was the most successful or influential student group at UIUC and why?

Week 04 – Lab Reflection + Reading Response

Lab Reflection

1. First Year Campus Acquaintance Rape Education (FYCARE) workshop is a mandatory interactive discussion on campus sexual assault. FYCARE workshops focus on the dynamics of sexual assault, ways to support a survivor, understanding consent, and campus and community resources. The majority of workshops are held in your residence halls and facilitated by peer educators, specially trained undergraduate students. FYCARE evaluations show that the vast majority of past attendees found the workshops both interesting and beneficial. The program became mandatory in the fall of 1996, in large part due to a grassroots effort from students in response to campus events. Peer institutions frequently look to the FYCARE program as a model for similar programs.

2. Data and records of the numbers and kinds of sexual assaults taking place on campus, studies evaluating the change in rates of sexual assaults since the establishment of FYCARE on campus will also help in gathering supporting evidence for this program.

3. I would chose documents that would support the existence of sexual assault on campus and preferably try and find articles that talk about the efficiency of programs like FYCARE.

Document 1 – https://archon.library.illinois.edu/index.php?p=collections/controlcard&id=624&q=sexual+assault

Document 2 – https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=uiug.30112055127614&view=1up&seq=1

3 Questions –

a. How are some ways the university increases the reach and impact of the FYCARE program?

b. How often is the syllabus of the program updated to meet the needs of the evolving situation to be effective in current times?

c. Since the establishment of FYCARE is the university seeing any decline in the number of sexual assault cases?

3 Multiple Choice Questions –

a. What percentage of women will experience a sexual assault incident in their undergraduate years?

– 10%

– 20%

– 25%

– 5%

b. How frequently is the FYCARE curriculum updated to remain on the cutting edge?

– Annually

– Semi Annually

– Once every 3 years

– Once every 5 years

c. What percentage of students at the University of Illinois are women?

– 10%

– 24%

– 45%

– 65%

4. Overall when FYCARE was introduced at UIUC it was taken up as a welcome move by the college authorities. There were not many oppositions or barriers I was able to find with regards to FYCARE.

5. The only barrier that I feel that FYCARE faces and needs to be addressed is students not completing the program on time or properly. This issue can be addressed by the university by taking stricter action to get students to comply with completing the coursework for the program.

Reading Response

During those times there were quite a few social and cultural barriers that played a role in leadership, politics and education as a whole. One of the barriers that I noticed was that “In 1968, feminism was not self-evidently on the agenda. Indeed, visible female leaders were rare.” (Evans) This was a problem because without proper female leadership the ideals of feminism and the voices of women was not heard. Young people challenging the rigidity of patriarchal institutions embraced Marcuse’s claim that it was possible to imagine “a non-repressive civilization, based on a fundamentally different experience of being and gender norms” (Evans). Another barrier was free speech, during Stottard’s time free speech was a risky venture among liberal educators. (Metz 12) Stottard strongly supported free speech, he gave moving dialogues to show his support for freedom of speech including – “We are all free in all respects save one; We are not free to tolerate the destruction of our freedom” (Metz 12). Another barrier was the objectification and unequal treatment of women, men were considered superior, more powerful and authoritarian. To combat this barrier a lot of student rebellions took place demanding equal rights for women “Student rebellions shared an emphasis on spontaneity, authenticity, and anti-hierarchy, and a utopian expectation that revolutionary change could be achieved. That utopianism was fed by the concrete, collective experiences of prolonged strikes and campus occupations.” (Evans)

Five Questions –

1. Who were the prime faces of feminism in the early 1968s that played the most crucial role in bringing these ideals forward?

2. What kinds of strategies and revolts were the most effective in making an impact on the existing ideology about women?

3. What restricted freedom of speech, and without it how did it amass such a huge revolution like population?

4. How has feminism changed since 1968 to present?

5. Is complete freedom of speech also the best solution for a country at large? Consider the spread of fake news due to the extreme freedom of speech on social networks.

Week 04 – Lab Reflection + Reading Response

Lab Assignment

  1. I-Connect Diversity & Inclusion Workshop is a training that is designed to help students embrace differences and to build a welcoming campus community. The workshop uses collaborative exercises and discussions to build communication skills to work in diverse environments. The function of this workshop is to provide students with important discussions about our similarities and differences. The needs addressed by this workshop are the demands for diversity and inclusion in our communities and universities.
  2. Data such as the race of students at the University of Illinois would exemplify the need for this workshop. The tension between students would also urge the university to implement diversity and inclusion workshops to help improve communication between students.
  3. Research:
  4. One of the barriers this workshop faces is the lack of facilitators needed to run them every year. When I went to one of these workshops, students were not engaged in the discussions. It felt forced and awkward. The biggest challenge I believe the program faces is recruitment and engagement. I don’t believe anyone is opposed to the program because it enhances communication in a diverse environment. But people could argue that the program isn’t engaging students in thoughtful discussion.
  5. The program needs more students to participate in the workshops. More engagement would provide the workshops with more facilitators that could connect with the incoming students. The strategy is encouraging the students to participate in civil and exciting discussions about ourselves.

Reading Response

The three strategies that students, campus groups, and leadership used to communicate those concerns were the concerns of free speech. The first barrier these leaders addressed were the limits and right to free speech. Fear of the red scare was prevalent in the 1960s (Metz 12). George Stoddard’s walk between publicly rejecting communism while supporting the right to free speech exemplifies one of these strategies that combatted this barrier. (Metz 12). This strategy helped to discuss the limits of free speech while avoiding the red scare at the time. The next barrier these students, groups, and leadership were faced with were the boundaries of womanhood that were placed by society. In order to combat this barrier, women claimed public roles that were meant for men and clashed the expectations of male friends who were trying to prove their manhood (Evans 338). The final barrier faced by these groups was the objectification of women. Independence for men was prevalent, however, the same freedoms were not given to women. In order to combat this barrier, Anne Koedt’s “The Myth of the Vaginal Orgasm” issued a move for female sexual autonomy by attacking the assertions made by Sigmund Freud (Evans 344). It pushed sexual autonomy and independence from their male counterparts.

5 Questions:

  1. Were there other limits of freedom that were caused by the second red scare in the 1960s?
  2. Why was freedom of speech the battleground for professors and legislations during this time?
  3. Why were public roles meant for men important for women to claim in order to combat these barriers made against feminism?
  4. Are there negative impacts made by Sigmund Freud’s assertions?
  5. How has womanhood changed from the 1960s to the modern-day?

Week 03 – Lab Reflection + Reading Response

Lab Assignment + Reflection

I observed a couple of strategies and services that DRES uses to address barriers of representation for people with disabilities today. As I watched the tour, I observed that the DRES facility has a lot to offer such as scholarships, social groups for interaction, and academic coaching for organizational skills. These all benefit the students because the scholarships will allow them to have a chance to get an education, the social groups will better the students with interacting with other students, and the academic coaching will ensure that the student is prepared and organized for a good education. The DRES building and physical designs emphasize how it was made possible for these students. DRES offered first fixed-route busses that were designed with wheelchair lifts. There was also a gym with enhanced equipment to make sure the students are doing the proper physical exercise. There were also elevators designed for wheelchair students who couldn’t reach the normal buttons, so they innovated a way to lower the buttons and allow students in wheelchairs to kick the button if they need to. The National Wheelchair Basketball Association is an example of one of the interdisciplinary partnerships that DRES collaborated with because it started with Tim Nugent organizing the first tournament which led to the foundation of the NWBA. It stood out to me and played a big role in inspiring women with disabilities to be able to participate as well.

3 Photos:

3 Memorable Quotes:

“Our diversity is our strength-DRES students represent the entire spectrum of psychological and neurodiversity.”

“Success never rests. On your worst days, be good. On your best days, be great. And on every other day, get better.”

“I don’t need easy. I just need possible.”

I think that two challenges DRES will face in the future is funding and facilities that introduce a similar strategy like DRES (prosthetics for example).

Reading Response

The authors in this week’s readings display how a campus can be diversified successfully and the steps that need to be taken. I believe these authors have made a similar impact to the DRES facility by making all types of students with different backgrounds comfortable, especially at the University of Illinois. With federal financial support and pressure to adopt affirmative action plans, universities began to develop affirmative action programs. To disrupt barriers to push for innovations in inclusion and diversity, Williamson demonstrated how “The initiation of SEOP boosted Black student confidence in the administration, though the students remained wary of procedures for recruitment and program development” (Williamson 57). The SEOP program promoted diversity, and against the backdrop of the Civil Rights Movement, Illinois began discussing how to increase the number of black students at the University. Additionally, the imbalance of minority student enrollment because of discrimination had to be fixed, and the SEOP committee made sure the university would take measures to end discrimination. Williamson and I would argue that these innovations furthered inclusion and diversity on campus today

In the summer of 1965, “Illinois inaugurated an experimental program both to promote equal educational opportunity and to investigate the academic needs of students, particularly Black students, from disadvantaged high schools” (Williamson 62). The school recognized that even though they met university admission requirements, they will encounter academic difficulties because of their old environments. This strategy helped shape the way African Americans were treated and intensified diversity on campus today.

A strategy to further diversify the campus was La Casa Cultura. The purpose of this was to include bilingual students who descended from Latino families who were either citizens in the United States or immigrants from Latin America. “La Casa Cultura Latina opened its doors in 1974 and set out to provide a home for Latino students and to spread awareness of Latino cultures across the campus” (Hoxie 221). I believe this was a great strategy, but there were still problems with funding, and was forced to rely on one doctoral student after it was created. Renewed student activism seemed to be the only tactic that would produce results.

Lab Reflection + Reading Response – Week 3

The tour was quite memorable, it was fascinating to see the innovations and measures that DRES has taken to make the lives of the disabled students on campus easier. A few of the interesting features in the facilities that stood out to me were, when the speaker mentioned the availability of Personal Assistants and disabled friendly services for smoother commute for the students. That seemed like a very convenient service to have. Another one was the Elevators were specially designed to be made disabled friendly and were a little larger and different than the regular elevators. All the spaces in the building were constructed keeping wheelchairs in mind, with very few stairs, and all the spaces having elevator connections or slopes so that wheelchairs could easily be transported. Another thing that stood out for me was how they had several spare wheelchairs in a room, which felt like a great service to have.

Out of all the collaborations with Microsoft, and other organizations, the one collaboration that stood out for me was the one with the Olympics. It was interesting and prideworthy to be told that most of the members in the Paralympics team came from UIUC, and it was fascinating to understand DRES had a huge role to play in it. The partnership of DRES with the USA Special Olympics Team is a very noble venture that provides disabled people a great platform for representation in the world of sports, it also brings DRES a lot of international exposure.

I have attached pictures I found of DRES. I did not realize we had to screenshot during the zoom meeting.

Shows facilities in Beckwith hall, and the Personal Assistant Services from DRES.

Shows the sports wheelchairs that are used by the students while playing the various sports.

Quotes that got the Spotlight:

  1. “We have extensive collaborations and partnerships with the United States Special Olympics Team, a lot of the members of the team are from University of Illinois.”
  2. “We have DRES alum working at companies like Microsoft, DRES helped me in achieving this goal.”
  3. “This innovation garage, has a lot of interesting stuff to foster innovation”

There are a few issues that DRES still needs to address, and seem to be the major barriers for the organization:

  1. Funding – the organization requires more funding to achieve its goals at scale.
  2. Stigma – DRES still must fight some stigma that revolves around disabled people and what they are capable of. This issue can be fought only by further educating the people about the achievements.

Reading Response

There were quite a few strategies that were employed to increase diversity and inclusion within the university. A few good examples would be organisations demanding the increased employment of black people. “In the wake of Project 500’s tumultuous launch, the BSA demanded that the university hire more black professors, establish a black cultural center, and organize an African American studies program.” (220) This helped in increasing diversity and a more inclusive culture within the university.

Other strategies that were put into place included – This included an organization taking a stance for the Latino student population at the university, “La Casa sought to expand the definition of “minority” to include bilingual students who descended from Latino families who were either citizens in the United States or immigrants from Latin America. Like the BSA, Colectiva brought attention to the severe under representation of Latino students and faculty on campus and demanded that the university develop a recruitment initiative to remedy the situation.” This shed light into the demands and talked about how latinos also deserved an equal representation at the University. (221) Following on the footsteps of BSA and La Casa, “While seeking the establishment of a cultural center, Asian American student activists also called for the establishment of an academic program. Courses in Asian American studies appeared in the early 1990s, but it was not until 1997 that the Asian American Studies Committee was organized” (222) This brought to the attention of the University authorities for the need of Asian coursework, and representation in the University. All of these examples were fighting for the same cause, an equal and fair representation and opportunities in the University.

These organisations, made great progress and impact. For La Casa, after several rounds of protests – The board of trustees soon approved the establishment of a Latino Studies Program, with Rafael Nunez-Cedeno, a professor of Spanish originally from the Dominican Republic, serving as the acting director. Over the next two decades, the program expanded its course offerings, developed an undergraduate minor in 1997. Similarly, BSA achieved great success as well.

Overall, although great progress has been made over the years, the fight for equal representation is not over yet, there needs to be further research to find out the groups that are still left out and to give them representation in the University. More strategies need to be employed to bring forward a more inclusive and discrimination free environment.

Week 03 – Lab + Reading Response

Lab

Over the course of over 70 years, the history of the University of Illinois has been marked by many “firsts” in the field of education and accommodations for those with disabilities. Originally, disability accommodations at the University were formed to serve those with physical disabilities due to war injuries, but they have since grown to include those with congenital physical disabilities as well as psychiatric disabilities and everything in between. Today, it is evident through the physical building of the Disability Resources and Educational Services (DRES) division that it was built with the needs of those with physical mobility issues in mind; the DRES building is one story tall and has elevators with touch-pads to motion up or down located just above the ground. Even though the University and State of Illinois were initially against the public funding of DRES, having a physical building for their division has since created a safe environment for students with disabilities to access needed resources. Additionally, students with disabilities needed more accessible housing and around-the-clock care, and Beckwith Hall opened in 1981 as part of DRES. In 2010, Beckwith Residential Support Services relocated to the newly constructed Nugent Hall, as a part of housing now–thus increasing visibility to the rest of campus and access to the Ikenberry housing resources as well.

Students with wheelchairs in front of Beckwith Hall, 1982.

Nowadays, DRES offers a wide array of services, which we learned about from Maureen Gilbert, DRES’ Campus Life Coordinator. DRES Students have access to exclusive social workers, psychologists, career services, note-taking services, and proctored testing facilities in order to ensure they can get the support to succeed inside of the classroom and beyond it. As Maureen said, for example, it is especially crucial nowadays for DRES students to get note-taking services, because the virtual format of most classes nowadays has caused added stress to education for many students. At the same time, the building itself highlights the accomplishments and stories of many current and former DRES students from their student life experiences studying abroad or having romantic relationships to their career achievements after college. These experiences do not come easy, but accommodations, such as having the first wheelchair power lifts on buses, have helped DRES students experience UIUC campus life to its fullest. As Maureen pointed out, the MTD does indeed have wheelchair accessibility, but DRES continuing to have charter busses for their students is beneficial to help them get around during busy times between classes. It can be hard enough for any student in general to get a spot on a crowded bus, but for DRES students, it is naturally even harder. Maureen also highlighted the story of a former student with autism majoring in CS + Linguistics whose dream was to work for Microsoft, and eventually with the help of DRES career services and a corporate partnership with Microsoft, he was able to do so. Additionally, with Microsoft and other tech companies, DRES is working to help pioneer the field of web content accessibility for those with disabilities.

Wheelchair power-lift on bus, date unknown.

In terms of athletics, DRES supports dozens of paralympic and international athletes, especially in the sports of wheelchair racing and wheelchair basketball. Partnerships with the athletic department, for example, let athletes race and practice in the same spaces and alongside non-wheelchair athletes. This increased visibility and normalization was also seen in the Olympics in the 1990s where wheelchair racing was featured as a sport in order to increase popularity and awareness of wheelchair sports in the international arena. At the same time, members of DRES work alongside researchers and athletic companies to innovate technologies and tools to make athletes faster — including 3D printing for wheelchair racing gloves. Not only do these gloves go toward their students but they also go toward young athletes interested in participating in sports like their peers.

Timeline from 1988-2008 of highlighted UIUC Paralympic-medalling athletes.

As DRES grows in reach and magnitude at the University of Illinois, it meets challenges in funding and general accessibility practices. DRES itself hopes to expand its sports facilities, but their proposed new athletic facility will cost an estimated $245 million and has no current funding pipeline. While the University has publicly acknowledged said development, it remains a pipe dream for now. As well, while the ADA is celebrating its 30th anniversary, there are still a lot of architectural advancements, such as the elevator button that DRES features, that would make the lives of those with physical disabilities easier, but they are yet to be mandated across the board. Additionally, web content accessibility remains a large pain point but many websites remain not fully accessible to those with vision impairments or screen readers. In challenges such as these, DRES’ partnerships with policy-makers, donors, and corporate sponsors proves crucial in making changes benefitting accessibility beyond just the UIUC campus.

Reading Response

In general, I think that these authors would agree that these innovations furthered inclusion and diversity on campuses. Through the creation of cultural houses on Nevada Street, the University leaned into the demands of various ethnic groups’ need to have visibility and learn about their culture (Hoxie and Hughes 219). These buildings provided safe spaces and personalized programming for minority groups, and in doing so, generations of minority students have felt supported while on campus — as merely accepting is not enough to do justice. For Black students specifically, the advent of the Afro-American Cultural Center in 1969 provided workshops on writing, dance, and gender roles among other topics (Williamson 82). By being able to participate in African American culture and heritage, Black students specifically could feel supported and have a sense of community with their Black peers. Through the creation of the Special Educational Opportunities Program, the University sought to aggressively increase enrollment of disadvantaged students, especially Blacks, to the ballpark of 500 students (Williamson 57). This program ultimately resulted in an increased socioeconomically and racially diverse student body, but there were many hurdles including acceptance and retention. All in all, the effects of these strategies lives on today, but there is still a long way to go in terms of racial justice on campus. The University under-accepts Black students, relative to the population of Illinois, across the board but especially in the high-paying fields of engineering. As well, departments and divisions supporting minority students are not funded at the same levels of certain colleges, such as Engineering or Business.

Week 03 – Lab Reflection + Reading Response

Lab Assignment

Through my observation at the DRES facility, I noticed a lot of strategies that I found interesting. For example, the elevator at the DRES facility are different from regular elevators. The buttons are made to be more accessible to students with disabilities. This emphasizes the relationship between the students with disabilities and the facilities ability to promote accessibility. Both the facility and the students need to communicate in order for the innovations to work. An example fo the interdisciplinary partnerships DRES has developed would be the USA Special Olympics team. This provides people with disabilities representation in the world of sports and the University of Illinois represents majority of the team in the United States. Their work with the Special Olympics helps them receive international recognition from governments. The last photo talks about the history of Beckwith Hall. It shows the development of the facility and the growth of the PA services. This service helps the students with disabilities receive first hand care from professionals.

  • Three photos:
  • Three Memorable Quotes:
    • “Even though I faced a lot of difficulties, DRES gave me the support and encouragement I needed to be able to graduate and get a job at Microsoft.”
    • “The presence of a problem is the absence of an idea.”
    • “Provide DRES students with the opportunity to study abroad.”

Overall, I believe the biggest challenge DRES faces in extending their story and impact is financial sustainability and funding. These are extremely difficult to receive from the government. A lot of these innovations require funding in order to fulfill the projects.

Reading Response

The first successful strategy used by African American students and the Black Students Association was called the 1968 Special Equal Opportunities Program. According to Frederick E Hoxie, “the BSA demanded that the university hire more black professors, establish a black cultural center, and organize an African American studies program” (220). This strategy helped to develop courses that embraced African American faculty members from social sciences, humanities, and fine arts (Hoxie 221). This was successful in promoting inclusion because it provided African American faculty members to connect with other African American members of the university. I would say BSA’s work is not complete yet because the group should continue to provide guidance and growth to African American students and their community. The next strategy was not as successful as the first one. According to Joy-Ann Williamson-Lott, “the SEOP participants were invited to arrive in Urbana-Champaign one week before other incoming students in the fall of 1968” (80). This strategy did not give the SEOP participants enough time to fulfill course placement tests and financial aid packages (Williamson-Lott 80). This was not successful because it did not prepare SEOP students with enough time to prepare for the academic year. The final strategy was as successful in helping the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. According to Williamson-Lott, “the Committee on Human Relations and Equal Opportunity proposed collecting racial data for all students, a suggestion that coincided with the 1964 Civil Rights Act…” (60). These figures emphasized the need for affirmative action and nondiscrimination policies (Williamson-Lott 60). This strategy successfully introduced the need for the University to push for nondiscriminatory policies. I believe there is more to complete because there should more strategies that prevent discrimination in student acceptance.

Annotated Bibliography

“Congressional Record: University of Illinois Centennial” Committee on the Centennial,
University of Illinois, 15 October 2009, pp. 73-76.

The main idea behind this record in my opinion was to put light on the International impact that
the University of Illinois has made in front of the Illinois representatives. The intended audience
is for the Illinois House of Representatives. The purpose of the text is to bring a change in policy
and legislation. The author has been a house representative himself, thus providing credibility to
his text. Henry talks about the immense scholastic and societal achievement of the university,
he also talks about the great impact the students and alum have made throughout the globe.

Geiger, Roger. The History of American Higher Education: Learning and Culture from the Founding to World War II.Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2015.

This study is intended to enlarge and extend appreciation of that history from the beginnings of
colonial colleges to the eve of World War II. Specifically, it seeks to explain how institutions of
higher education changed over time in response to their contemporary contexts. The intended
audience are scholars and postgraduate researchers majoring in education in my opinion.
Geiger is a Professor of Education at the Pennsylvania State University. He has done extensive
research in the field and is also a professor.

Schroeder, Paul. “Why?” The Daily Illini, 15 March 1968.

The main idea behind the article is to begin a movement to bring out modernised education at
the University of Illinois. Through his speech Schroeder tries to encourage his fellow students to
build new education for the future. Paul Schroeder is a representative of the Education Reform
Committee and a student at the University of Illinois. He believes that the university is not doing
enough to bring modern ways of teaching and the syllabus is not appropriate. The intended
audience for this speech is students, faculty, and administration of the University of Illinois.

Leslie J. Reagan, “Timothy Nugent: ‘Wheelchair Students’ and the Creation of the Most Accessible Campus in the World,” in The University of Illinois: Engine of Innovation, edited by Frederick E. Hoxie.

The main idea of this article is to talk about the creation, and the struggles and barriers towards
DRES and the disabled population at the University. The vision and dedication of one man, Tim
Nugent—together with the persistence of the university’s disabled students in making DRES a
reality. In 1948 admitting people with disabilities, specifically “wheelchair students,” to the state’s
flagship university and treating them like any other student on campus seemed strange
and questionable. However, with the struggles of Tim Nugent, and the student population this
dream was soon realised.

Steven E. Brown, “Breaking Barriers: The Pioneering Disability Students Services Program at
the University of Illinois: 1948-1960,” in The History of Discrimination in US Education, edited by
Eileen H. Tamura (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008)

The article is mainly about how the barriers mentioned in the above text were broken by Tim
Nugent, how DRES played a role in doing so, and how they went about making disabled
students accepted physically and culturally on campus. Those with disabilities were cast aside,
like criminals, away from public view. In 1948 a determined young man named Tim Nugent
intended to overturn such thinking. From 1948 to 1960, he shepherded a program that
succeeded in shatter-ing long standing, pervasive institutional, physical, economic,
psycholog-ical, and other barriers that marginalized and ostracized people with disabilities. As
the first director of the University of Illinois DisabilityResources and Educational Services
(DRES) program, Nugent did everything in his power to ensure its survival. He battled
prevalent nega-tive social attitudes, university bureaucracy, and an inaccessible environ-ment.
He cajoled, badgered, and encouraged many students who were unprepared for postsecondary
success.

Commemorative Book Preparation and Publication Committee. Expanding Horizons: A History of the First 50 Years of the Division of Rehabilitation-Education Services at the University of Illinois. Roxford DT Pub., 1998.

This excerpt is mainly about how DRES was established and how it came to be. It talks about the father and creator of DRES, the challenges both social and economic that DRES had to encounter in its initial years. It also talks about the role that DRES played in the lives of disabled population at the university.

Chapter 3: Joy Ann Williamson-Lott, Black Power on Campus: The University of Illinois, 1965-75. Champaign: University of Illinois Press, 2013

The author talks about the problems and issues relating to recruitment, acceptance of the black population, and retaining students — the article puts spotlight onto the various dynamics of the challenges that required the help and acceptance of many University scholastic departments and staff.

Pages 77 – 84: Joy Ann Williamson-Lott, “Clarence Shelley: The Campaign to Diversify the University” in The University of Illinois: Engine of Innovation, edited by Frederick E. Hoxie

The article talks about the history of black students at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, it talks about how the history is a complicated one that involves discrimination, racism, protest, and resilience. Because the African American community maintained an unwavering belief in the importance of education, It shows how the university have initiated the various movements for liberation.

Pages 219 – 223: Frederick E. Hoxie and Michael Hughes, “Nevada Street: A Center for the Study of Race and Ethnicity,” in The University of Illinois: Engine of Innovation, edited by Frederick E. Hoxie

The cultural houses on Nevada Street showcase the dedication for diversification and equality. They are grounds for student activists and faculty on the University of Illinois campus to have safe spaces and support for students of varying ethnic backgrounds.  The audience intended for this work would be students, and professors.

Metz, Michael. “Radicals in the Heartland: The 1960s Student Protest Movement at the University of Illinois.” University of Illinois Press, 2019.

            The main idea behind this excerpt was to discuss and inform the readers about the student protests that were occurring at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. There were discussions about how freedom of speech came to be at the university how during the 1960s it was a huge problem. Metz talks about how – “We are all free in all respects save one; We are not free to tolerate the destruction of our freedom” His perspective as a student at the university provides first-hand experience of the protests. The intended audience are students because it is a more informative article and strongly talks about his beliefs.

Evans, Sara M. “Sons, Daughters, and Patriarchy: Gender and the 1968 Generation.” American Historical Review, 2009.

The main idea behind this excerpt is to inform the readers about how feminism came to be during the 1960s. It talks in detail about how women were treated and how lack of woman leadership led to the unjust treatment of women and the dire need for principles and ideals of feminism. Sara M. Evans is a professor of history at the University of Minnesota. Since she has a lot of experience and has studied and researched in detail about this topic it makes her a credible source. The intended audience for this article is anyone interested the history of feminism especially young female readers.

Yang, Andrew. The War on Normal People: The Truth About America’s Disappearing Jobs. Hachette Books, 2018.

The main idea behind this book is to talk about what the Normal American looks like, delves deep into jobs and topics including technological change, automation, job displacement, the U.S. economy, and what Yang describes as the need for a UBI. The people of the United sates in my opinion are the main audience of this book. This book talks about a lot of topics that are central to Yang’s 2020 presidential campaign. Yang discusses job displacement and the shrinking of local economies, terming it the “Great Displacement”, which has been “the product of financialization, globalization, and technologization”. He talks about topics like how automation will displace many jobs, etc.

Prutzer, Ned. “The BCL and the Cybernetics Moment.” The Biological Computer Laboratory, 20 Jan. 2019, https://scalar.usc.edu/works/the-biological-computer-laboratory/the-bcl-and-the-cybernetics-moment?path=index.

This is a information website on the Biological Computer Lab. It consists of various intriguing artifacts and snippets of information about the BCL. Ned Prutzer is the creator of this website a PHD student who made it as research. I believe the intended audience are Students and Professors alike.

Hutchinson, Jamie. “Heinz Von Foerster and the Biological Computer Laboratory.” “Nerve Center” of the Cybernetic World, http://bcl.ece.illinois.edu/hutchinson/index.htm.

The website is an old fashioned HTML website that talks in detail about how the BCL came to be, it talks about several features of the BCL. It also delves into detail about cybernetics and sheds light upon Heinz Von Foster, talks about his contributions in the field of cybernetics and BCL. The intended audience for this website are students and faculty interested in the history of Bly Manor.

Anderson, Bethany. “Heinz von Foerster and the Biological Computer Laboratory: A Cybernetics Odyssey.” Exhibits, University of Illinois Archives, 6 December 2016, https://archives.library.illinois.edu/blog/heinz-von-foerster-and-the-bcl/.

The main idea behind this website is to act as a culmination of information on Heinz Von Foster, BCL and the practice of Cybernetics. The intended audience for this blog are students, faculty members and anyone who is interested in learning about these topics.

Dear, Brian. “Remembering the Future.” PLATO History, PLATO History Foundation, 2010, platohistoy.org/.

The platohistory.org website is the home of the PLATO History Foundation and the archive for information about the history and significance of the PLATO computer system and its online community.The Foundation’s principal focus is to advance the public awareness of the history, significance, and importance of the PLATO computer system and its online community, and to tell the story of the people who designed, built, and used the system.

Don Bitzer, “Use of CBE for the Handicapped,” American Annals of the Deaf 124.5 (1979)

The main idea of the excerpt from the book “Use of CBE for the Handicapped” by Don Bitzer is to talk about how computer network systems in education like the PLATO have aided in education for the Handicapped. It talks about how handicapped students can use PLATO features like narration for aiding in learning. The main audience for this book are educators and researchers in my opinion.

Lamont, Valerie. “New Directions for the teaching Computer: Citizen Participation in Community Planning.” Computer-based Education Research Laboratory, 1973.

The main idea behind this article is talk about how computer network systems like the PLATO can be used with helping and working on Community Planning. It talks about how using these systems the whole process becomes much less tedious and time consuming. The main audience in my opinion are the administrators that fun these community planning projects, researchers as well as students who are interested in the field.

Weber, Larry. “Blind Student Power.” Technograph, 1968.

The main idea behind this excerpt is to talk about how PLATO helped learning for blind students at the university. It talks in detail about the hardware, and how the system functions to help blind students study using PLATO. The hardware used in the conventional PLATO system consists of a keyset which the student uses to “talk” to the computer and a display screen which the computer uses to “talk” to the student. The main audience of this excerpt are students interested in learning about PLATO, also blind students informing them about the innovation of such features in the computer system.

Harvard U Program on Survey Research: Tip Sheet on Question Wording

This article is a guide to write proper research surveys, it consists of techniques and tips to write professional surveys. It has been accredited by Harvard University hence I believe it is a credible guide to write surveys. It consists of explanatory examples to better understand how surveys should be written. It also consists of a bibliography of all the sources which can be considered while making our own survey.

OECD (2012), “Good Practices in Survey Design Step-by-Step”, in Measuring Regulatory Performance: A Practitioner’s Guide to Perception Surveys, OECD Publishing, Paris.

Good practice methodologies considerably improve the quality of results and help avoid pitfalls. This chapter explains good practice through sequential, step-by-step guidance that can be used to design a perception survey. It provides advice on how to define survey objectives and the target group, draft survey questions, pilot and re-adjust a questionnaire, select respondents and data collection methods, run the survey, and analyse the results. (Good Practices Abstract)

A Tour through the Visualization Zoo: Jeffrey Heer, Michael Bostock, and Vadim Ogievetsky, Stanford University

The reading puts forward various visualizations on different topics, it is meant to showcase the power and efficiency of visualizations. It talks about various techniques to spot patterns, identify intricate details and find outliers in a visualization. The intended audience are people interested in getting into the field of data analysis and visualization, as well as anyone interested in getting a basic intro into the field.

Design & Re-Design: Fernanda Viégas / Martin Wattenberg

The authors talk about the fact that visualizations are based on transforming raw data means that criticism can take forms that would be impossible for a movie or book. The goal of the article is to think through the issues involved in public visualization criticism, especially criticism based on direct redesigns. It begins with analyzing several details in existing visualizations and later on puts forth various techniques to make better and more detailed visualizations. It talks about how criticism is important and a building block for better re-design.

Annotated Bibliography

Geiger, Roger. The History of American Higher Education: Learning and Culture from the Founding to World War II.Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2015. 

This book informs the reader about higher education, including interpretations of the Morrill Land Grant. Roger Geiger is a credible author and source from Penn. State University. His research at a high-level institution gives him a wide range of credibility, intending to teach scholars who are studying education. His pin-point ideas about education were straightforward. 

“Congressional Record: University of Illinois Centennial” Committee on the Centennial, University of Illinois, 15 October 2009, pp. 73-76. 

David Henry interprets the ambition that is driven into students at the university and other land-grant universities and delivered a speech as the President of the University of Illinois that drove innovation. From there, he thanks the innovations of his superiors while looking toward the future, clarifying the significance of university education and pushing toward the growth of the University for it to sustain these goals and promises of career preparation and an incentive to be successful. 

Schroeder, Paul. “Why?” The Daily Illini, 15 March 1968. Paul encourages students and the University of Illinois to build new education for the future. He is a representative of the Education Reform Committee, meaning he has a good background in educational reform in higher education. He wrote this speech towards students, faculty, and administration through his own innovation. This is reflected by the author’s tone when he encourages all members of the University to join in his ambition to rebuild the education system in Illinois.

Leslie J. Reagan, “Timothy Nugent: ‘Wheelchair Students’ and the Creation of the Most Accessible Campus in the World,” in The University of Illinois: Engine of Innovation, edited by Frederick E. Hoxie

The main purpose of this source is the innovation of Tim Nugent on pushing for a better environment for students with disabilities. Its intended audience is the general public, but also to major institutions that still need to implement a better learning environment for students with disabilities. The author, Leslie Reagan, is a well-known professor here at the University of Illinois, making her a credible source. She makes the conclusion that DRES students deserve more accountability and encouragement, as displayed from Tim Nugent.

Steven E. Brown, “Breaking Barriers: The Pioneering Disability Students Services Program at the University of Illinois: 1948-1960,” in The History of Discrimination in US Education, edited by Eileen H. Tamura (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008)

The main purpose of this source is to inform the reader of the discrimination of students with disabilities. Brown writes, teaches, talks, and brings life to the mission of the organization he co-founded, the Institute on Disability Culture, which promotes pride in the history, activities, and cultural identity of individuals with disabilities throughout the world.

Chapter 3: Joy Ann Williamson-Lott, Black Power on Campus: The University of Illinois, 1965-75. Champaign: University of Illinois Press, 2013

Pages 77 – 84: Joy Ann Williamson-Lott, “Clarence Shelley: The Campaign to Diversify the University” in The University of Illinois: Engine of Innovation, edited by Frederick E. Hoxie

Joy Ann Williamson-Lott is a professor of the history of education at the University of Washington College of Education, making her a credible source. Her primary research examines the relationship between social movements and institutions of higher education. Her book on the University of Illinois deciphers the interaction between students and administrators that created the successful support systems which are made possible on today’s college campuses.

Pages 219 – 223: Frederick E. Hoxie and Michael Hughes, “Nevada Street: A Center for the Study of Race and Ethnicity,” in The University of Illinois: Engine of Innovation, edited by Frederick E. Hoxie

Frederick Hoxie is a professor emeritus at the University of Illinois and was a former professor of history, law, and American Indian Studies. His current research focuses on indigenous political activism in the United States. He is a credible source because he is trained as a social and political historian and served at Illinois for fifteen years.

Pages 32 – 81: Michael Metz, Radicals in the Heartland: The 1960s Student Protest Movement at the University of Illinois, U. of Illinois Press, 2019.

Michael V. Metz gives an insightful and informational analysis of events that shaped each year of the 1960s at the University of Illinois Champaign-Urbana campus. He took part in the student movement and wrote about the activism and courage of the students. He is a credible source because he made the information possible by interviews, archives, and newspaper records to show a movement in demands for free speech, inspired by a movement for civil rights.

Sara M. Evans. (2009) Sons, Daughters, and Patriarchy: Gender and the 1968 Generation. American Historical Review. 

Sara Evans is a professor in the history department at the University of Minnesota. She has also worked as the editor of Feminist Studies. The purpose of her writing is to inspire women to feel confident about themselves and to encourage them to use their freedom of speech. Through her efforts, she has helped to establish the University of Minnesota as a major center for women’s history and women’s studies. She is also recognized as a leader in feminist scholarship.

Chapters 3 – 7, Yang, Andrew. The War on Normal People: The Truth About America’s Disappearing Jobs. Hachette Books: 2018.

Andrew Yang is an entrepreneur and former Presidential candidate. His source is credible and it uses different types of evidence involving numbers, data, and proven statistics from the past to present. According to his biography, Yang also wants to expand access to mental health services, advocating for an increase in providers working in rural areas, requiring insurance companies to give providers an incentive to use AI for more efficient healthcare. Reading his text provided me with a different point of view and gave me key information on how to make use of data and statistics.

Ned Prutzer, The Biological Computer Laboratory

Ned Prutzer is a PhD student in Communications and Media at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. He is a credible source as he earned his Master’s degree in Communication, Culture and Technology and received his Bachelor’s degree in English and American Studies. His research focuses on the intersections of new media and cultural memory in relation to conceptualizations of art, knowledge, and resistance. The purpose of his writing portrays the innovation of technology.

Jamie Hutchinson, “Nerve center of the cybernetic world: Heinz von Foerster and the Biological Computer Laboratory.”

Jamie Hutchinson is a publications editor at UIUC. This source helps to explore connections between these four individuals—Heinz von Foerster, W. Ross Ashby, Warren McCulloch, and Norbert Wiener—and to better understand how they influenced each other and the context in which their ideas evolved. It will also enable us to shed light on hidden connections between documentation within their research archives. I believe this source is credible after analyzing the significance of cybernetics.

Bethany Anderson, “Heinz von Foerster and The Biological Computer Laboratory: A Cybernetics Odyssey,” (https://archives.library.illinois.edu/blog/heinz-von-foerster-and-thebcl/) University of Illinois Archives blog

Bethany Anderson is a University of Illinois Archives faculty member who talks about the story of Heinz von Foerster and how he developed the BCL throughout his career. She is credible because she includes many different examples and pictures that displayed his work and the impact that it had on the University. Over nearly two decades the BCL created a unique interdisciplinary research space for cybernetics.

Brian Dear, PLATO History Blog

Brian Dear is a credible source that talks about the history of the PLATO computer system. He justifies each of his stories and articles on how it has impacted the community as well as students across the nation. He also uses pictures and data to add to his website to reveal more of what shaped PLATO and its accessible features.

Don Bitzer, “Use of CBE for the Handicapped,” American Annals of the Deaf 124.5 (1979)

Bitzer was a professor at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign when he was asked to build a computerized learning system. The result was PLATO, a networked and interactive teaching system that introduced online concepts. He is a credible source because he made a career of improving classroom productivity and education by using computer technology.

Pages 149-162: Valerie Lamont, “New Directions for the Teaching Computer: Citizen Participation in Community Planning, ”Technological Forecasting and Social Change5 (1973)

Pages 17-20: Larry Weber, “Blind Student Power,” Technograph (October 1968)

Larry Weber is the Chairman & CEO of Racepoint Global, an advanced marketing services agency, a well-known expert in PR and marketing services, and an author, making him a credible source. According to his biography, Larry enjoys helping global brands and emerging companies harness social media strategies to enhance brand reputation, create and extend partnerships, and increase demand generation.

Harvard U Program on Survey Research: Tip Sheet on Question Wording

This source justifies ways to enhance the creation of a survey. It includes other sources that provide examples of other common and pre-existing surveys and pinpoints specific strategies that will make the survey better. I trust this source and its knowledge because it comes from the prestigious Harvard University and portrays exactly how questions should be worded and how concise answers should be to them.

OECD (2012), “Good Practices in Survey Design Step-by-Step”, in Measuring Regulatory Performance: A Practitioner’s Guide to Perception Surveys, OECD Publishing, Paris.

This source informs the reader through sequential, step-by-step guidance that can be used to design a perception survey. It provides advice on how to define survey objectives and the target group, create survey questions, editing and re-evaluating a questionnaire, determine respondents and data collection methods, how to run the survey, and analyze the results. It’s important to know all this before conducting a real survey that will be used for research to improve the quality of results and avoiding obstacles.

Allen Hall History (1994)

Unit One is an academic program located in Allen Hall and is a part of the University of Illinois Residence Hall system. Unit One is co-sponsored by the Vice Chancellors for Academic and Student Affairs. The goal of Unit One is to provide an enriched academic program that also addresses the personal and developmental needs of its students while providing challenges and alternatives that are not usually available to lower division undergraduates at the University. In 1983, the Council on Program Evaluation (COPE) issued its evaluation of UNIT ONE’s three year reorganization.

Proposal to Encourage Undergraduate Education Development at UIUC (1972)

This proposal is a letter from Richard Smock, Frank Duff, King Broadrick, and Roland Holmes to the Staff Council of the University of Illinois, in March 1972. This letter seeks to reform the current policies and curriculums created at the University of Illinois. The goal is to create new structural changes that reflect the high priority placed on undergraduate education.

A Tour through the Visualization Zoo: Jeffrey Heer, Michael Bostock, and Vadim Ogievetsky, Stanford University

This source displays many visuals of different sets of data and provides a brief tour through the showing techniques for visualizing and interacting with diverse data sets. The purpose of this is to inform the reader on the importance of digital information and our understanding of it. The goal is to see patterns, spot trends, and identify outliers in graphs and data plots, and also to engage audiences into analysis.

Design & Re-Design: Fernanda Viégas / Martin Wattenberg

Fernanda Viégas and Martin Wattenberg are experts in data visualization and analytics and they focus on finding new ways for users to understand and explore data. Fernanda had a higher background in design, while Martin had a higher background in mathematics. Their combination of backgrounds has brought them to lead Google’s “Big Picture” visualization research group in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Viégas and Wattenberg are also known for visualization-based artwork.

Marc Andreessen, Why Andreessen Horowitz Is Investing in Rap Genius

Marc Andreessen is a cofounder and general partner at the venture capital firm Andreessen Horowitz. He is a credible source because he co-created the highly influential Mosaic internet browser and holds a BS in Computer Science from the University of Illinois. His innovation is more responsible than any other for popularizing the Internet and bringing it into hundreds of millions of homes.

Pages 152-158: Jimena Canales, “Mosaic: The First Point-and-Click Internet Browser,” in The University of Illinois: Engine of Innovation, edited by Frederick E. Hoxie.

Jimena Canales attended school at Harvard University with a background in physics and engineering. She is currently a faculty member of the Graduate College at the University of Illinois, and a Research Affiliate at MIT. She is a credible source and brings to light that before the development of Mosaic, most users could only access the internet with a command-line computer interface, but now anyone’s browser probably appears as an icon on the desktop of their computer or laptop. 

Greg Newby, “My Prairienet Story”

This source dates back to 1992 in Greg Neweby’s time. He was asked to start a “Free Net” by Ann Bishop, which was a new way for people to communicate with each other online . He is a credible source because he explains his experience and how he developed PrarieNet, which was a major success. Greg Newby also gets the demonstration of the Prairienet system running, and further develops the initial menu system. 

CU Community Health Plan

This source is credible because it overviews the Champaign Urbana Public Health Department’s efforts to assess and find needs in the communities it serves. The purpose is to communicate that the CUPHD has comprehensive and well-thought-out plans to fix problems the community is facing. It also is able to grant the reader with some clarity on how organizations like the CUPHD run.

Week 02 – Lab Reflection + Reading Response

Lab Reflection:

Questions:

How has communication evolved over time?

Has student fashion changed? What has depicted student fashion?

Line of Inquiry:

In order to answer these questions, I must source evidence from the past that connects one or even both of my questions. A lot has changed from the 1900s, but it’s important to understand how students have grown over technology and innovation of new fashion. Back then, it wasn’t as easy to meet with your friends on campus because communication was not as strong, especially during the war. Additionally, students do not wear the same clothes that they’ve worn in the past.

4 Pieces of Evidence:

According to the video Changing Communications | Student Life, it was shown that in the early days, “mail proved to be the most popular way of reaching out” to other students or even family and friends (0:16-0:24). I chose this video because I couldn’t imagine what it would be like if we continued to use the same mailing strategy today. Mailing takes a lot more time to deliver in comparison to newer technology that involves texting or voice calls. Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=1&v=velIPeyseXU&feature=emb_logo

After watching the video Changing Communications | Student Life to the end, I discovered that “over the years, telephones proliferated from offices, to private homes, to public areas, to everyone’s hand” (1:37-1:49). This proves that the innovation of the telephone affected communication between everybody and made things a lot easier, compared to when they constantly had to read through newspapers and kiosks. Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=1&v=velIPeyseXU&feature=emb_logo

The video on Changing Student Fashions | Student Life brought to life what students wore back in the day and how they styled their hair. It was proven from the video how their style was transformed from “luxurious beards of the 19th century, to flowing dreads in the 21st century” (0:13-0:18). How did this trend necessarily start? Was it based on other peoples’ opinions, or did they do it to their own liking? After finding out that newly enrolled men would shave their mustache as a norm, the student newspaper of 1881 claimed that “this wholesale slaughter of mustaches must be stopped” again changing how men shaped their look. Overall, hairstyle and facial hair has definitely changed from the past. Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=2&v=wc2AdQqboeI&feature=emb_logo

This photo demonstrates how The U.S Navy strategically found a way to communicate during the way by using balloons that would lift soldiers into the sky to locate the other country’s position. They recruited the Department of Engineering from the University of Illinois to “design an instrument that measured the tension of kite balloons,” to communicate to one another where an enemy could be.

Analysis:

I observed that student life was not as easy as it is now. Compared to the past, we now have almost every resource we need: from smartphones that allow us to find everything, to computers that let us explore the web. I learned that many students faced struggles that pushed people to be more innovative and invent things such as the telephone that would positively impact the students on campus. Additionally, the newspaper tested a man’s ego after they wrote that they must eliminate the clean shave look after it became a tradition.

I discovered that communication and fashion from the past has evolved greatly over time, transforming the world in a positive way. My analysis shows that communication was a key part to students success and continues to be today. Student fashion was driven by the students themselves and I think it’s important that a student should have the right to dress in their own way, regardless of criticism. Although I could do more research, the evidence showed what impact the varies types of communication has had in the past and how useful it is to have good communication resources.

Reading Response:

Nugent and the DRES Community used different strategies to disrupt the dominant image of disability. According to Reagan, ” Nugent created a climate that welcomed disabled students and a program that drew them into the campus mainstream while providing spaces where a separate community of their own could nurture and support them” (Raegan 51). This strategy encouraged to overcome barriers in order to institute DRES. Many students who were in wheelchairs felt they had no incentive to overcome their adversity, but their reputation was set at a high standard by DRES. Both Nugent and the students themselves understood that the “image and reputation of students with disabilities as independent, intelligent, and socially integrated” was important for both Nugent and the student’s own success (Raegan 51). Students with disabilities did not realize at the time how important they were to the university’s innovative program. As a matter of fact and according to Raegan, they created it. “Tim Nugent regularly credited students and, from the beginning, recognized that the disabled kids influenced the program’s directions” which was another way that Nugent pushed for the DRES community. Not only did this inspire more students, but the passion that he had for this program made innovation more common not only to the University but to the entire world.

The fact that in the last two centuries, many people didn’t believe in people with disabilities, pushing them out of the world, which is heartbreaking. Nugent made a tremendous effort by battling “prevalent negative social attitudes, university bureaucracy, and an inaccessible environment” to better prepare those with disabilities (Brown 165). Thankfully to Nugent and his aspiration to make a better environment for the DRES community, this resulted in the Illinois program becoming an oasis for wheelchair students that treated them like any other student. This allowed for these students to become visible on their own terms after the author argued how “quadriplegics went from the hospital to a nursing home. Now they have the opportunity to move onto campus” for a better education and even better support system (Brown 171).

Pages 50 – 59: Leslie J. Reagan, “Timothy Nugent: ‘Wheelchair Students’ and the Creation of the Most Accessible Campus in the World,” in The University of Illinois: Engine of Innovation, edited by Frederick E. Hoxie

Pages 165 – 187: Steven E. Brown, “Breaking Barriers: The Pioneering Disability Students Services Program at the University of Illinois: 1948-1960,” in The History of Discrimination in US Education, edited by Eileen H. Tamura (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008)