Week 02 – Lab + Reading Response

Question: What do students do for fun outside of school and how has that changed over time?

Line of Inquiry: I would need to learn about the different types of extracurricular activities at the University of Illinois and what they each entail. As well, I would need to understand how previous definitions of these activities may compare or contrast from how they are now. If possible, learning the origins of each activity would be relevant as well. In the end, this could showcase the evolution of interests over time or reveal commonalities despite the changing times.

According to the video “Star Course | Music in the Air,” Star Course was a student organization formed to be a “speaker series styled after the ‘Star Course’ literary circuit of Boston” (0:22-0:27). Then, “by the mid-20th century, the organization was an active force in bringing the heat of its generation to student audiences” (1:22-1:28) and is now the “oldest student-run organization at Illinois” (0:29-0:32). I chose to highlight this, because it showcases how despite changes in taste and preference, the Star Course student-run music production continues in popularity. Video: https://youtu.be/eXCP1CR5tfA

According to the video “1868-1919 | How Do Students Live Here?”, the University officially embraced the Greek System starting in 1891 and “Greek houses began appearing on campus in the early 1900s, providing living quarters and instant companionship for students seeking new friends in a new environment” (1:46-2:03). This reveals that the origin of Greek Life was to meet the basic needs of housing and companionship for its members. Video: https://youtu.be/jQZAqPJJhk0

According to the video “1941-1966 | How Do Students Live Here?”, “One student could offer wisdom beyond her years: ‘Pretty much everyone will say that the dorm they lived in their freshman year is the best one on campus!’” (2:07-2:16). This perspective reveals that many people at the time based their identity and social life on their dormitory, and thus, they felt a lot of pride attached to their chosen residence hall. Video: https://youtu.be/AY879GDcptk

According to the “Fraternity and Sorority Tour: 1912-1913,” many former fraternity and sorority houses encompassed space along Green Street. This is a lot different from nowadays, because those houses no longer occupy Green Street, and the area nowadays is largely seen as a commercial area for recreation, food, and drink.

Analysis

From the tour and data, I learned that student life at the University was largely attributed to and dictated by housing choice. This can be inferred from the rise of the Greek System as one of the reliable sources of housing before public housing (for males) was offered by the University, as well as the general feeling of pride for one’s residence hall. Nowadays, such pride for one’s dorm is not as prevalent—likely due to the rise of technology making communication and coordination among students living in different places more seamless. A few texts and a bus ride later, people could be having lunch with their friends all across campus. The identity and social circles of a student is not bound by their dorm and its physical confines but rather the course schedules and bus timesheets. Additionally, the Greek System has likely risen in popularity in terms of a student’s identity with a series of traditions and standards one must meet in order to get a bid, which is a far cry from its original goal of meeting housing and companionship needs. The identity and social life of a person can indeed be outlined by their fraternity or sorority in today’s time. At the same time, student organizations like Star Course, which itself hosts music productions, have remained largely the same in mission despite the decades since but its execution in terms of music genre of course differs from reggae to rap to rock depending on the time. 

My analysis is definitely incomplete, and my perhaps deficient analysis is largely influenced by the finite source material of the digital exhibits and historic maps. At the same time, I have to consider how the objective of the videos I used as evidence was to highlight the change in housing over time in an energetic manner, and I largely had to extrapolate my findings and apply my current perception of student life in order to deduce social change on campus. Whether I myself am that comprehensive of a source on student life remains to be considered, but it definitely leads to a weak answer to my question. There is a lot of further research I could do involving Greek Life specifically, the evolution of Green Street, the growth of RSOs, and the effects of technology on social life—even then, these are only a few ideas. There are a lot of additional questions I have as well: how did the balances of certain student persona types’ average daily time spent doing activities (e.g. studying, RSOs, Greek Life) change over the decades? How was this influenced by race and gender? What was the perception among students of other students (e.g. stereotyping)? The intersection of these topics surrounding social life is where a lot of my questions rest.

Reading Response

In order to demonstrate the ability and worth of the DRES community, Tim Nugent relied on several uncommon strategies in order to prove to an audience that believed them to be incompetent and worthless to the University community. At the start of 1949, the initial 14 paraplegics admitted to the University were explained in The Daily Illini “individually, by name, age, major, and reason for the paralysis that ‘forced [them] to use wheelchairs'” (Reagan 52). It’s clear then, that this dehumanization and objectification was not being cast on others but merely students with disabilities as it was viewed acceptable to openly discuss their bodies rather than afford them privacy. Nugent continued to lobby against these injustices–including how the change to wheelchair-accessible sidewalk curb cuts was not being done quickly enough so “Nugent and a group of students then went out late one night and broke curbs with sledgehammers, forcing the university to ‘repair’ them with curb cuts” (Reagan 54). This sort of renegade thinking and action allowed for the increased accessibility of sidewalks as the University did not feel compelled to update them for wheelchair access unless they already had to update them due to a general need for repair. At the same time, Nugent’s standard for new buildings to be built with wheelchair users in mind in 1953 was already 15 years before the federal Architectural Barriers Act of 1968 and was the first of its kind on college campuses (Brown 173). While the University may seem somewhat slow and unprogressive in addressing the needs of students with disabilities, it was in reality lightyears ahead of its peers and competitors in doing so. Nugent’s work a long way in dismantling the current status quo of the time where those with disabilities were not expected to go to University, nonetheless participate in recreational activities like sports (“Expanding Horizons” 3). In that light, his work did a lot to illuminate DRES students in their own terms and allow them to do a lot of things that they previously could not, such as participate in education at a large university and do sports.

Week 2 – Reading Response + Lab Reflection

Reading Response –

There were several methods that DRES and Nugent applied to change the way disability was treated on campus and eased the lives of several members of the community. Some of the most noticeable and landmark strategies that were used to disrupt were creation of a climate that welcomed disabled students and a program that drew them into the campus mainstream while providing spaces where a separate com-munity of their own could nurture and encourage them. There were accommodations towards disabled veterans, disabled students’ ability to open doors and portray adaptability, and the integration of sports and recreation. Created wheelchair accessible buildings, sidewalks, and other infrastructure to provide a truly accessible campus experience. In terms of disability accommodation the campus became a model of innovative architectural design. The governor, William Stratton gave a speech which legitimized and greatly showed support for the program.

Before DRES, and during the past two centuries, many Americans believed individuals with disabilities were deviant, or worse. Those with disabilities were cast aside, like criminals, away from public view. This was more or less the cultural perspective and a barrier that DRES had to overcome. This was overcome by the creation of DRES, and it was also the first barrier that they had to overcome. Nugent shepherded a program that succeeded in shattering longstanding, pervasive institutional, physical, economic, psychological, and other barriers that marginalized and ostracized people with disabilities. Another more recent issue that DRES faced was the ability for students with disabilities to receive access to technologies at the University of Illinois. By the creation of DRES, “The inventiveness and passion of the program that Nugent created did something even more important: it made these innovations commonplace, first on the university campus and eventually, across the nation and many parts of the world.”

Lab Reflection –

Questions –

1. How do veterans play a role in the culture of the University and how does UofI make these student veterans feel welcomed culturally in the university?

2. What are the different programs and facilities in terms of policies and infrastructure that benefit the veteran community? How is their cultural experience?

Line of Inquiry –

There are a few things we could do to find out the answer to our questions – First research about the veteran community at UofI, find out RSOs that exist on campus for veterans, learn about the buildings that have been made for the Army and veterans. Interview veterans and learn about the facilities they enjoy as being part of the veteran community, also learn about their responsibilities as a veteran if any.

Pieces of Evidence –

#1 Geri Young | Who Are the Illini? 1:05-1:13

This video talks about the life of a veteran on campus. Geri Young is a veteran and she talks about night counseling with the veterans on campus, this is one of the examples of how the University has created policies to make veterans feel more welcome.

#2 Geri Young | Who Are the Illini? 0:20-0:45

This part of the same video talks about the cultural differences and how the univeristy diversity helps her feel welcome at the university, it also talks about the age and cultural gap.

#3 Chez Veteran Centre

https://www.library.illinois.edu/mappinghistory/campus-map-timeline/

The map contains the Chez Veteran Centre in Urbana, which was established by the University to give support to the veteran population at the University.

#4 Veteran Memorial Project

A project found in the digital archives to honor the men and women of the University of Illinois who made the supreme sacrifice as members of the U. S. Armed Forces during our nation’s wars and conflicts so that we may live and learn in freedom.

Analysis –

– I learned about the extensive archives that the univeristy keeps about all its landmark policies and achievements. It was interesting to learn how the University supports its veteran community. The digital archives were a rich source of information that depicted clearly how students think about the facilities provided by the university. The gallery provided students with the opportunity to learn in detail about the heritage that is present at UofI.

– My line of inquiry was all answered by the evidence that I was able to find through these archives. It helped me learn a lot about the life of veterans at the Univeristy both in terms of the benefits, policies they enjoy and also the cultural perspectives of veterans. Learning about the Memorial Project, the Chez Veterans center, and watching the Geri Young video taught me about how age and past life experiences also play a role in the university experience. I also learned how the university awards the countries heros with amazing policies, and infrastructure such as the Chez Center.

Week 02 – Lab Reflection + Reading Response

Lab Reflection

  • Questions:
    • What impact has the military and government made on the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign?
    • Has the military changed the lifestyle of students and faculty at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign?
  • Line of Inquiry:
    • I would need to find the military’s introduction to the university’s lifestyle. Finding the development of the military at the university will reveal its impact on the buildings and practices. This would also support my argument that the military has made an impact on the University as a whole.
  • 4 Pieces of Evidence:
    • According to the video “1941-1946: How Do Students Live Here?”, “the war would have a stunning effect on the University of Illinois campus, simultaneously draining it of most of its male students, then filling it back up with military trainees” (0:08 – 0:18). I chose this part of the video because it showed the impact the war had on the population of male students enrolled at the university. 
    • According to the James Era Building Tour in the “Campus Historic Maps and Timelines”, “all underclassmen were required to train for three hours a week, and a total of 1,525 soldiers trained actively – double that of most other National Guard units.” The University of Illinois had more National Guard units than any other university during this time. It shows the importance it had on the military and the military impact through the creation of the armory.
    • The next piece of evidence comes from the same video from the first piece. According to the video, “lured by the G.I. Bill, 11,000 veterans signed up at Illinois” (0:53 – 0:57). This example shows the impact the military had on veterans. After the war, they were provided with the opportunity to receive an education that would improve their livelihood.
    • According to the World War I Tour in the “Campus Historic Maps and Timelines, “the University’s engineering department undertook 16 war-related projects at the government’s request.” This showed the early relationship between the University of Illinois and the government. Their innovation as a university helped to push the war efforts for the United States military.
  • Analysis:
    • Overall, I learned a lot about the impactful relationship the University of Illinois creates with its students and alumni. The gallery provides students with the opportunity to participate in the history and heritage that is present at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. It was interesting to see the growth from Illinois Industrial University to the present sixteen college university.
    • My analysis answered my question regarding the impact the United States military had on the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The evidence showed the increase and decrease of male students during the war. It also shows the growth of the armory making it the biggest national guard training facility. I focused the majority of my research on the impact as a whole. I would say my research into the different buildings impacted by the military would be needed. However, my research has provided me with another question. Why did the United States government use the University of Illinois to train and grow their military body?

Reading Response

The different strategies that Nugent and the DRES Community used to disrupt the dominant image of “disability” were accommodations towards disabled veterans, disabled students’ ability to open doors and portray adaptability, and the integration of sports and recreation. These examples helped students with disabilities exemplify independence and reveal their strengths to the University of Illinois and the governor of Illinois. Another strategy that was used to change the perception of these students was governor William Stratton’s speech which legitimized the program. However, Nugent did not believe this strategy was impactful. According to Steven E. Brown, “Nugent thought legislation might force people to obey laws, but it could also stymie creativity in finding ways to enhance integration, whereas education could truly change attitudes” (180). Brown understood that Nugent wanted education to enhance and disrupt the older image of students with disabilities. Forcing schools to follow a strict set of rules would only limit the growth of disabled students.

One of the problems that needed to be overcome by DRES was the ability for students with disabilities to receive access to technologies at the University of Illinois. According to Expanding Horizons, “DRES has obtained several grants to initiate the development of a distributed network of assistive computer technology that may be used in dormitories or class areas” (31). These innovations have enabled DRES students to become visible on their own terms because the students would not be forced to receive the technology that was only provided at a rehab center. This provides the students with a choice to access the technology around the campus. More options in public area provides visibility in public spaces with their fellow peers.

Week 01-Lab Reflection + Reading Response

1a) Innovation + Society Lab

In the middle of the day around 3:00 pm, I went to observe a place that I usually find myself in. The first location is a basketball court that I love and am familiar with. It’s located on the side of my fraternity, and I use this space often to play basketball, hangout with some friends, or even have social events on. Many others use this area of the house for basketball as well, and sometimes it gets very competitive. Usually when the fraternity recruits new members, they bring them to the basketball court because it’s a great environment for a bunch of guys who like sports and want to have a good time. 

I was in this location during the day, right in front of the house to the left. It’s ideal that there is a bus stop walking distance from the front door, but sometimes it’s not a place I really like due to past experiences of the bus being late or not even showing up. The bus stop is used by many of the guys that live in the fraternity house, allowing us to get to the quad more quickly. Additionally, I often come to this spot very early in the morning, so I don’t usually look forward to going to it. The bus stop has helped me in situations where I could’ve been late for class, so the idea of putting one right in front of the house makes it beneficial for everyone who lives around it as well. The house is located on the border of Urbana and Champaign, so it’s not as close as the rest of the houses in Champaign. 

2a) Reading Response

Why is the idea of Land Grant important to President Henry and the comments he 
makes in his 1968 speech? What was innovative about Land Grant – what did it change? 

The Land Grant is key to understanding the important history of the University of Illinois. While the initial vision of the Land Grant was clear in its emphasis on education for the agricultural laborer, its interpretation in society remains important to the needs of the school and its students, facility, and staff. The Morrill Act indirectly pushed Land Grant Universities to find a way to incorporate mechanical arts (Geiger 307). This act helped to fulfill the industrial and mechanical needs that were demanded by the respective states. 

The Land Grant opened institutions and transformed access to education and innovation from then on. For many land-grant universities such as the University of Illinois, this meant hopefully lowering the barrier to access of universities and increasing its growth in order to meet demand, although there was still a long way to go (Henry). In this, we can see that President Henry outlines Illinois as a prestigious University, but it requires intellects such as him to guide the University into the next century. By understanding the Land Grant’s perspective of education for people across the world to better equip them for their futures, we can then understand why it didn’t always work. At the same time of President Henry’s speech, there was a backlash by students against the university for not listening to them. Students felt insecure about their education and it was not enough to simply teach students on agriculture and industry, or marketing and advertising as originally expected, but to equip them with the intellectual and high-level thinking to solve any problem that came toward them.  As the student Centennial Convocation speaker Paul Schroeder said, “Let us all work together not so much to liberalize the present order, as to gain our liberation from it” (Schroeder). It is not enough for students to be educated through required classes, but to develop their own innovation as they grow older and make use of things that other people haven’t thought of yet.  

Response (to Goose’s post): 

I believe that both of our reading response posts have a lot to do with education reform and that the Land Grant focused mainly on wide educational opportunities, comprehensive curricula, and diversity. 

Week 01 – Lab Reflection

1a) Innovation + Society Lab Reflection
I am currently doing this semester virtually from my home in India. It took me a while to find
something innovative in my immediate surrounding that I had never thought or appreciated
before. While thinking about it one of the things that came to my mind was how cables are
managed for my computer and the internet in my house.
Unlike America, in India internet cables are pulled up manually in buildings, there is no proper
cable management built into the buildings especially the ones that were constructed several
years ago. However, when we were renovating our house we knew how ugly cables look when
left unmanaged. In the first picture as you can see, that’s my setup. From the outside it looks
like a very minimal amount of cables for a complex computer setup. However, that’s all because
of the construction that went behind managing the abundance of cables that are used for the
wifi and the computer.
As you can see in the next few pictures, to manage the number of cables we had to cut a wedge
so that the cables could go through the drawers up to the router, monitor and the speakers. We
then punched a hole into the table top and covered it with a cable managing holder to get all the
cables above the table without it showing and making the space look cluttered and ugly.
Another interesting observation was that the internet cables from the cable provider come from
behind the furniture, and are hidden, that makes the space look beautiful as well as does a
great job hiding unnecessary cables.
Although cable management is an innovation we would not usually appreciate, however when
you think about it, you realise how complex and beautiful the construction really is.
As compared to my house, in America the buildings are made keeping cable and wire
management in mind. The internet providers have their cables already pulled in from within the
walls so that to connect to wifi all a person has to do is find a round outlet and connect his/her
router to it. That’s another brilliant way of managing cables and keeping them uncluttered.

Annotated Bibliography

Anderson, Bethany. “Heinz von Foerster and the Biological Computer Laboratory: A Cybernetics Odyssey.” Exhibits, University of Illinois Archives, 6 December 2016, https://archives.library.illinois.edu/blog/heinz-von-foerster-and-the-bcl/.

            The purpose of this blog is to inform the reader about the history of Heinz von Foerster and the creation of the Biological Computer Laboratory. Bethany Anderson is a blogger for the University of Illinois Archives. She has written other blogs on the website. The audience intended for this blog is undergraduates and graduate students of the University of Illinois. The style in this blog is intended to create a story about Heinz von Foerster and his push for the BCL.

Andreessen, Marc. “Why Andreessen Horowitz Is Investing in Rap Genius.” Genius, 2020, https://www.genius.com/Marc-andreessen-why-andreessen-horowitz-is-investing-in-rap-genius-annotated. 

            The purpose of website is to explain why the author is investing in the website Rap Genius. Marc Andreessen is an entrepreneur and investor in tech companies and other firms. The audience intended for this website is for entrepreneurs and people interested in tech companies. He explains his reasoning for investing in the website. The style shows excitement for investing in the website.

Bitzer, Donald. “Use of CBE for the Handicapped.” American Annals of the Deaf, Gallaudet University Press, 1979.

            The purpose of this chapter in American Annals of the Deaf is to inform the reader about the PLATO project’s impact on the handicapped. Donald Bitzer is an electrical engineer that has created a computer-based education system that could help handicapped students. The audience intended for this chapter in American Annal of the Deaf is researchers in technological-based education systems that want to improve the systems meant for the handicapped.

Brown, Steven E. “Breaking Barriers: The Pioneering Disability Students Services Program at the University of Illinois: 1948-1960.” Palgrave Macmillan, 2008.

            The purpose of this source is to inform the reader about the new disability service programs that made the University of Illinois a pioneer in shattering barriers that marginalized people with disabilities. Steven E. Brown is the co-founder of the Institute on Disability Culture. This provides insight into the history and cultural identity of people and students with disabilities. The audience intended for this source would be members of the University of Illinois because the students, faculty, alumni, and administration should learn about this part of Illinois history.

Canales, Jimena. “Mosaic: The First Point-and-Click Internet Browser.” Engine of Illinois Innovation, edited by Frederick E. Hoxie, University of Illinois Press, 2016, pp. 152–158. 

            The purpose of this source is to discuss the point-and-click internet browser known as Mosaic. Jimena Canales has a background in physics and engineering which means she has a good understanding about the browser Mosaic. The audience intended for this source are engineering and tech students interesting in the history of internet browsers and user interfaces.

Commemorative Book Preparation and Publication Committee. Expanding Horizons: A History of the First 50 Years of the Division of Rehabilitation-Education Services at the University of Illinois. Roxford DT Pub., 1998.

            The purpose of this source is to inform the reader about the first fifty years of the Division of Rehabilitation-Education Services (DRES) at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The intended audience for this source would be the scholars of the University of Illinois. The style is intended to educate and inform the reader about historical DRES. There is a bias in this source because it assumes that the time between 1940-50, people only had a negative attitude towards people with disabilities.

Community Health Improvement Plan: Champaign County Illinois. Champaign Regional Executive Committee, 2018. 

            The purpose of this document is to inform the reader about the improvements to the community health plans for the Champaign County. The authors of this document are the members of the Champaign Regional Executive Committee. The members consists of doctors and health experts from Carle, United Way, and other Medical organizations. The audience intended for this document are residents of the champaign community because it plans out the health improvements intended for the people living in Champaign.

“Congressional Record: University of Illinois Centennial” Committee on the Centennial, University of Illinois, 15 October 2009, pp. 73-76.

            The purpose of this record is to inform the Illinois House of Representatives about the international impact the University of Illinois has made. The author of the speech is William L. Springer. He was the House representative for Illinois’s 22nd district. This emphasizes that the author is credible. The intended audience is for the Illinois House of Representatives. The speech was meant for a new policy or legislation. The author’s style is reflected by the intended audience because he tries to inform and persuade the House of Representatives.

Dear, Brian. “Remembering the Future.” PLATO History, PLATO History Foundation, 2010, platohistoy.org/.

            The purpose of this website is to archive the history of the PLATO computer system and the people who built and designed the system. The author, Brian Dear, is a tech entrepreneur and startup mentor that runs the website. This emphasizes that the author has a good understanding in technology and technological systems. This website is meant for tech enthusiasts and students researching about the PLATO computer system.

Evans, Sara M. “Sons, Daughters, and Patriarchy: Gender and the 1968 Generation.” American Historical Review, 2009.

            The purpose of this source is to educate readers about the rise of feminism in the 1960s and discuss the patriarchy. Sara M. Evans is a professor of history at the University of Minnesota. She has a lot of experience in the field which makes her a credible source. The audience for this work is most likely for scholars or professors because she goes into a lot of detail and focuses on writing the history.

Geiger, Roger. The History of American Higher Education: Learning and Culture from the Founding to World War II.Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2015.

            The purpose of this book is to inform the reader about the history of American higher education. Roger Geiger is a Professor of Education at the Pennsylvania State University. This gives him credibility because he is an established researcher and professor at a respected university. The intended audience would be scholars and researchers in education because he is informing the audience about the history of higher education.

Harrison, Chase. “Program on Survey Research.” Harvard University Press, 2007.

            The purpose of this document is to provide readers with tips on wording the questions in a survey or questionnaire. The author, Chase Harrison, is an Associate Director of the Harvard program of Survey Research in the Department of Government. The audience intended for this document are researchers interested in created surveys or questionnaires.

Heer, Jeffrey, et al. “A Tour through the Visualization Zoo.” A Tour through the Visualization Zoo – ACM Queue, Acmqueue, 13 May 2010, queue.acm.org/detail.cfm?id=1805128. 

            The purpose of this website is to give the reader a tour around visualizations that are prevalent in displaying data to people. The authors of this website are researchers at Stanford University. This shows that the participants of this research are respected in their field. The audience intended for this website are data enthusiasts that are interested in the visualization of data for people to understand.

“History of the United States Army School of Military Aeronautics at the University of Illinois Urbana, Illinois.” School of Military Aeronautics, University of Illinois, 1918.

            The purpose of this source is to discuss the history of the School of Military Aeronautics at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The audience intended for this source is scholars and researchers interested in the history of the SMA. The tone of the work focuses on informing the audience about the development of the school at the University of Illinois.

Hoxie, Fredrick E and Michael Hughes. “Nevada Street: A Center for the Study of Race and Ethnicity.” University of Illinois Press, 2017.

            The purpose of this source is to inform the reader about the study of race and ethnicity at Nevada Street. Frederick E. Hoxie is a professor of social and political history. He focused the majority of his research on indigenous people in North America. The audience intended for this work would be students, scholars, and professors researching race and ethnicity in Nevada Street.

Howard, Jessie. “Summary of Replies to the Questions Sent to Illini in Service.” Provost’s Office, 1944.

            The purpose of this questionnaire is to collection information about the Illini in service and understand the replies of the students. Jessie Howard is the man who ran the questionaire and analyzed the data at the end of the source. The audience is researchers and members of the military because it provides important data regarding future plans for students going back to the University of Illinois after the war.

Hutchinson, Jamie. “Heinz Von Foerster and the Biological Computer Laboratory.” “Nerve Center” of the Cybernetic World, http://bcl.ece.illinois.edu/hutchinson/index.htm.

            The purpose of this website is to inform viewers of the website about Heinz Von Foerster and the Biological Computer Laboratory. Jamie Hutchinson is Publications Editor at the Grainger College of Electrical and Computer Engineering. His perspective as an editor provides readers with more information about the Biological Computer Laboratory and its creator. The audience intended for this website is electrical and computer engineering majors.

Johnston, Edward S. “History of the Military Department University of Illinois 1869-1921.” Reserve Officers’ Training Corps, University of Illinois, 1921.

            The purpose of this source is to discuss the history of the military department at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Edward S. Johnston is a professor of Military Science and Tactics at the University of Illinois. His credentials give him the perspective needed to talk about the ROTC. The audience intended for this source is cadets and other undergraduates that are a part of the military at the University of Illinois.

Lamont, Valerie. “New Directions for the teaching Computer: Citizen Participation in Community Planning.” Computer-based Education Research Laboratory, 1973.

            The purpose of this document is to inform readers about an experiment testing the feasibility of using the teaching computer for involving people in community planning. Valerie Lamont is the researcher conducting the experiment. The audience intended for this source are researchers and graduate students interested in the PLATO project and its impact on technological learning.

Metz, Michael. “Radicals in the Heartland: The 1960s Student Protest Movement at the University of Illinois.” University of Illinois Press, 2019.

            The purpose of this source is to discuss the student protests that were occurring at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Michael Metz took part in high tech marketing but he also participated in student protests in the 1960s. His perspective as a student at the university provides the first-hand experience of the protests. The audience intended for this source is most likely students because he uses timelines to help illustrate the movement.

Newby, Greg. “My Prairienet Story.” My Story, 2004, www.petascale.org/prairienet/pnet-gbnstory.html. 

            The purpose of this website is to tell the readers a story about the author’s experience with the Free-Net. Greg Newby was a graduate student at the School of Library and Information Science at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. He provides his readers with a first-hand experience with the Library and Information Science School. The audience intended for this story are graduate students and students in the School of Library and Information Science at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

OECD. “Good Practices in Survey Design Step-by-Step.” Measuring Regulatory Performance: A Practitioner’s Guide to perception Surveys, OCED Publishing, Paris, 2012.

            The purpose of this publication is to discuss good practices that help the quality of results and avoid problems with surveys. OECD is and organization that helps to stimulate economic growth and promotes world trade. The audience intended for this document is researchers that are interested in producing surveys that help to collect data.

Prutzer, Ned. “The BCL and the Cybernetics Moment.” The Biological Computer Laboratory, 20 Jan. 2019, https://scalar.usc.edu/works/the-biological-computer-laboratory/the-bcl-and-the-cybernetics-moment?path=index.

            The purpose of this website is to create an intriguing website that informs the viewers about the Biological Computer Laboratory. Ned Prutzer is a PhD student in Communications and Media at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. His perspective as a PhD student provides research experience on the Biological Computer Laboratory. The audience intended for this website is most likely for PhD students interested in the Biological Computer Laboratory.

Schroeder, Paul. “Why?” The Daily Illini, 15 March 1968.

            The purpose of this speech is to encourage his fellow students to build new education for the future. Paul Schroeder is a representative of the Education Reform Committee. This means he has a good background in educational reform in higher education. The intended audience for this speech is students, faculty, and administration of the University of Illinois. This is reflected by the author’s tone when he encourages all members of the University to join in his desire to reform the education system.

Reagan, Leslie J. “Timothy Nugent: ‘Wheelchair Students’ and the Creation of the Most Accessible Campus in the World.” University of Illinois Press, 2017.

            The purpose of this source is to inform the reader about the creation of DRES and the impact of Timothy Nugent’s vision made serving students with disabilities. Leslie J. Reagan is the author of the source. She is a professor in the Department of History at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Her diplomas and experience as a professor establish her credibility in this field. The audience intended for this source is scholars and historians because she discusses the development of organizations such as DRES.

Smock, Richard, et al. “A Proposal to Encourage Undergraduate Educational Development at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Campus.” Cruel Staff Council, 1972.

            The purpose of this document is to propose appointing an Associate Vice Chancellor for Undergraduate Education at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The authors of this document are Richard Smock, Frank Duff, King Broadrick, and Roland Holmes. They are the Council members representing this proposal to the CRUEL Staff Council. The audience intended for this document is the Staff Council members of CRUEL. The beginning of the document explains that it is for the Staff Council and the wording of the document is phrased for the members.

“Unit One History.” History of Unit One Living-Learning Community, University Housing, 1994, housing.illinois.edu/Living-Options/Living-Learning-Communities/Unit-One/traditions/history. 

            The purpose of this website is to inform students and alumni of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign about the Unit One Living-Learning Community. The audience intended for this website are students, alumni, and professors at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. This is the targetted audience because it talks about the university’s rich history. The website brings up notable Illinois faculty such as Chancellor Jack Pelteson.

Viegas, Fernanda, and Martin Wattenberg. “Design and Redesign.” Medium, Medium, 3 Apr. 2015, https://medium.com/@hint_fm/design-and-redesign-4ab77206cf9. 

            The purpose of this website is to inform and teach the readers about the design and redesign about displaying different forms of data visualization. The authors of the website, Fernanda and Martin, are co-leaders of the People + AI Research (PAIR) initiative. The audience intended for this website are data analyst and data interpreters that are interested in data design.

Weber, Larry. “Blind Student Power.” Technograph, 1968.

            The purpose of this article is to empower blind students and establish more perfect learning conditions for engineering students. Larry Weber is a student that is a part of the university. This is important because it helps the author connect with other students. The audience intended for this article is students because he uses “we the students” as a way to include students in the piece.

Williamson-Lott, Joy Ann. “Black Power on Campus: The University of Illinois.” University of Illinois Press, 2013.

            The purpose of this source is to inform the reader about the impact African Americans made at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Joy-Ann Williamson is a professor of education at the University of Washington. The audience for this source is students and professors because it discusses the history of federal policies intended for racial reconciliation in the 1960s.

Williamson-Lott, Joy Ann. “Clarence Shelley: The Campaign to Diversify the University.” University of Illinois Press, 2017.

            The purpose of this source is to inform the reader about the University’s campaign to diversify the campus. Joy-Ann Williamson is also the author of this source. She is also the Dean of the University of Washington’s Graduate School in the College of Education. The audience intended for this work is for professors and students at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

Yang, Andrew. The War on Normal People: The Truth About America’s Disappearing Jobs. Hachette Books, 2018.

            The purpose of this book is to inform the readers about the causes for the decline in industrial jobs in the United States. Andrew Yang was a democratic presidential candidate who was known for his Universal Basic Income policy. The audience intended for this book is working class Americans in the United States. He targets the working class and explains the causes for the decline in paying jobs.

Annotated Bibliography

Bitzer, Donald. “Use of CBE for the Handicapped.” American Annals of the Deaf, Gallaudet University Press, 1979.

This chapter’s purpose is to illustrate the role and activities regarding using PLATO with those with disabilities. Donald Bitzer is an electrical engineer famous for pioneering and steering the direction of PLATO as a computer- assisted instruction system. The audience is other large entities looking to implement technological advances such as PLATO to educate students with disabilities.

Bankhead, Tekita, Otchere, Kimberly, and Williams, Ayanna. “Housing Is An Epicenter For Change: A Narrative of Students and Staff Championing Campus Social Change Movements.” Journal of College & University Student Housing. Vol. 43, Issue 3, 2017, p 80-91.

Through this article, Bankhead, Otchere, and Williams demonstrate the work of student activists and University housing to co-create positive social change for students of color. In doing so, they portray the University as a benevolent and supportive system for student activists and their need for change, especially come from their positions as staff leadership within the cultural and social justice spaces at the University.

Bragg, Debra, Durham, Brian, and McCambly, Heather. “Catching the Spark: Student Activism and Student Data as a Catalyst for Systemic Transformation.” Change, Vol. 48, Issue 3, 2016, p36-47.

As the faculty and administrators behind the Pathways to Results program, the authors are clearly trying to emphasize the program’s success and impact in achieving its goals of systemic transformation of the University of Illinois. The want the University of Illinois’ program to be a testament to their effectiveness as empathetic leaders as well as to teach other universities how they leveraged data in order to improve the experiences of people of color.

Brown, Steven E. “Breaking Barriers: The Pioneering Disability Students Services Program at the University of Illinois: 1948-1960.” Palgrave Macmillan, 2008.

Author Steven E. Brown demonstrates and explains the disability programs of the University that have made the University of Illinois one of the initial universities that was largely accessible for those with disabilities. The text is definitely lengthy and intended for academics to cite for their scholarly works. While this chapter is only one that focuses on the University of Illinois, other chapters likely did not focus on the U of I and instead focus on other topics.

Commemorative Book Preparation and Publication Committee. “Expanding Horizons: A History of the First 50 Years of the Division of Rehabilitation-Education Services at the University of Illinois.” Roxford DT Pub., 1998.

This source covers the history and milestones of the first 50 years of the influential Division of Rehabilitation-Education Services (DRES) at the University of Illinois. Its intended audience is likely the University’s academics, DRES community, and the public, because its lighthearted language and wide usage of photos would be generally appealing and digestible for wide audiences. There is bias in this piece as it was put out by DRES itself and likely wanted to portray everything the University did as fair and favorable toward the disability community.

Evans, Sara M. “Sons, Daughters, and Patriarchy: Gender and the 1968 Generation.” American Historical Review, 2009.

Evans highlights the history of the gender movement in regards to the patriarchy as a dichotomy between men and women, especially as it related to and was seen in 1968. Her audience is likely academic as it includes extensive citations and footnotes. Her work is unique in that it focuses predominantly on gender in terms of the 1968 generation, rather than other social movements, and in its international sense.

Geiger, Roger. “The History of American Higher Education.” Princeton University Press, 2015.

Through his book, the author Roger Geiger attempts to summarize a wide array of history involving American higher education, including the effects and interpretations of the Morrill Land Grant of 1862. His extensive documentation and survey of the landscape is definitely fit for a scholar necessitating adequate citations, and this comes across in his verbose tone and comprehensive descriptions. All in all, he seeks to demonstrate how the Morrill Land Grant meant a wide range of things for private to public to midwestern to eastern universities, but nonetheless, it pushed forward the popularity of education in the United States, even if that meant succumbing to external pressures and not quite meeting its mark of an education for the masses.

Harrison, Chase. “Program on Survey Research.” Harvard University Press, 2007.

In this document, Harrison intends to outline best practice and advice for research survey design. The author is the Associate Director of the Harvard Program on Survey Research, which is an interdisciplinary scientific program that facilitates research and instruction in the theory and practice of survey research. This document is intended to be introductory to survey design and accessible for non-academics to enter survey design.

Henry, David, and Springer, William. “University of Illinois Centennial.” Congressional Record, 1968.

In a speech he delivered as the President of the University of Illinois, David Henry outlines the immense scholastic and societal achievement of the university and other land-grant universities as well as its students over the past century since its founding. From there, he thanks the innovations of his predecessors while looking toward the future, emphasizing the ongoing importance of a university education, and pushing toward growth of the University in order for it to sustain these goals and promises of career preparation and democracy for Illinois and the rest of the country.

“Heinz von Foerster and the Biological Computer Laboratory: A Cybernetics Odyssey.” Exhibits, University of Illinois Archives, 6 December 2016. archives.library.illinois.edu/blog/heinz-von-foerster-and-the-bcl.

The purpose of this archives blog post is to describe and give a brief overview of Heinz Foerster and the Biological Computer Laboratory. The author, Bethany Anderson, is a blogger for the archives at the University of Illinois. The blog post is intended to be accessible and interesting to students and the general public curious about the BCL.

Hutchinson, Jamie. “Heinz Von Foerster and the Biological Computer Laboratory.” “Nerve Center” of the Cybernetic World. http://bcl.ece.illinois.edu/hutchinson/index.htm.

The purpose of this webpage is to showcase the history of Heinz and the Biological Computer Laboratory in a technically robust format. The author, Jamie Hutchinson, is an editor within the Grainger College of Engineering’s Electrical and Computer Engineering department. The webpage is likely intended to be referenced or accessed by electrical engineering and technical students and academics seeking a brief overview of the BCL and cybernetics.

Hoxie, Frederick E., and Hughes, Michael. “Nevada Street: A Center for the Study of Race and Ethnicity.” University of Illinois Press, 2017.

As Hoxie and Hughes highlight in their short article, the cultural houses on Nevada Street are living evidence of the dedication since the 1960s of student activists and faculty on the University of Illinois campus to have safe spaces and support for students of varying ethnic backgrounds. While the authors conclude that the creation of these cultural houses and their resultant programs are testimony to the power of activism and protests, there should be more research and metrics about the success and popularity of these programs in order to successfully justify if the original demands of student activists have been met.

Lamont, Valerie. “New Directions for the teaching Computer: Citizen Participation in Community Planning.” Computer-based Education Research Laboratory, 1973.

The purpose of the document is to describe the author’s experience using PLATO for community planning, and in the process of doing so, highlighting PLATO’s viability as a community planning tool. Valerie Lamont was the researcher carrying out the experiment, who was one of the early students and adopters of PLATO. The audience is researchers and technologists interested in civic organizing methods.

Metz, Michael. “Radicals in the Heartland: The 1960s Student Protest Movement at the University of Illinois.” University of Illinois Press, 2019.

This source discusses the student protest and activism movements the University of Illinois during the 1960s. Michael Metz was a UIUC student during that time period, and thus, his perspective and recanting likely has influences from having lived through it as a student. His audience is likely other U of I alumni who also lived through that time period as well as academics and non-academics who are simply curious about the history of student activism at the University.

OECD, “Good Practices in Survey Design Step-by-Step.” Measuring Regulatory Performance: A Practitioner’s Guide to perception Surveys, OECD Publishing, Paris, 2012.

The purpose of this document is to provide a deep-dive into the art of research survey design. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is an intergovernmental economic organization founded to stimulate economic progress and world trade. The audience is researchers and academics seeking to surveys calibrated to an internationally accepted standard.

Prutzer, Ned. “The Biological Computer Laboratory.” The Biological Computer Laboratory, 20 Jan 2019. scalar.usc.edu/works/the-biological-computer-laboratory/the-bcl-and-the-cybernetics-moment?path=index.

The purpose of this website is to reveal the story of the Biological Computer Laboratory through a story-like manner in order to appeal to wider and more diverse audiences interested in research, such as undergraduate students. The author is a PhD student in Communications and Media at the University of Illinois.

Reagan, Leslie J. “Timothy Nugent: ‘Wheelchair Students’ and the Creation of the Most Accessible Campus in the World.” University of Illinois Press, 2017.

This source provides an overview of the initial years of DRES and Timothy Nugent’s influential effects on the University and its disability community in making large progress toward wide-spread accessibility. At the same time, this piece likely shows bias in favor of Tim Nugent as he is largely revered by the University nowadays and this piece was printed by the University of Illinois press. Regardless, the author justifies his rationale and is able to showcase that some of Nugent’s work was met with initial criticism by those with disabilities too.

“Remembering the Future.” PLATO History, PLATO History Foundation, 2010. www.platohistory.org.

The purpose of this blog is to highlight anecdotes from PLATO’s history and creation. The main author, Brian Dear, is a longtime tech entrepreneur and founder that has previously worked worked in computer-baed education including with the PLATO system. His tone is more casual and approachable, especially with the blog-based format of the sitee.

Schroeder, Paul. “Why?” The Daily Illini, 15 Mar 1968.

Paul Schroeder is a self-proclaimed disappointed student who has spent his last four years at the University of Illinois and had been chosen to deliver a speech at the Centennial Convocation. He feels that the University has failed him and his fellow students, because the education does not meet the demands of the students to push critical modern thought and support retrospection and its outlined changes. Schroeder’s call to action is one to his fellow students as well as university faculty and administrators: join together and rebuild education so that it can prepare the next generation of leaders.

Williamson, Joy Ann. “Black Power on Campus: The University of Illinois, 1965-75.” University of Illinois Press, 2017.

Through this chapter in a scholarly book, Williamson explains the history of the Special Educational Opportunities Program (SEOP), which was the University of Illinois’ proposed solution to take affirmative action in order to recruit more disadvantaged students, especially Blacks. The author highlights issues with recruitment, acceptance, and retention of these students — showcasing how it was multi-faceted challenge that required the help and acceptance of many departments and staff within the University.

Williamson, Joy Ann. “The Campaign to Diversify the University.” University of Illinois Press, 2017.

Through this look into the history of Black students at the University of Illinois, the author explains the history of Black students and student life since the early 1900s through the 1970s, while also highlighting a few modern events as well. The author does this in order to explain how Black students specifically in the 1960s and 1970s demanded changes and how that ultimately resulted in policies and initiatives that have benefited Black students and faculty since. At the same time, the author highlights certain opposition and vitriol that these groups faced in gaining acceptance.

Yang, Andrew. The War on Normal People: The Truth About America’s Disappearing Jobs. Hachette Books, 2018.

Throughout his book, Andrew Yang highlights the role of automation on the disappearance of jobs and the need for Americans to adapt to this. Andrew Yang is known for being a candidate in the 2020 Democratic presidential primaries and for being an executive at a test prep company as well as Venture for America, a program that gives two-year fellowships for those seeking a start-up experience. This book became the basis for his Democratic campaign and the agenda he ran on, which highlighted the need for Americans to adapt to automation, and thus, it can be said that it may be less rigorous in statistics but strong in convincing rhetoric for the general public — though likely well-educated — that may be reading it.

Week 01 – Lab Reflection + Reading Response

Why is the idea of Land Grant important to President Henry and the comments he
makes in his 1968 speech? What was innovative about Land Grant – what did it change?

The idea of the Morrill Land Grant of 1862 is fundamentally necessary to understand the monumental history of the University of Illinois and to see where it may grow from there. During the centennial anniversary of the Land Grant, the University of Illinois President Henry clearly illustrates how far the University has gone in increasing access and admission to higher education, contributing to academic research across a variety of disciplines, and preparing thousands of students for careers. However, he does not stop there and is quick to point out the areas and fields that the University needs work on. While the initial vision of the Land Grant was static in its emphasis on education for the agricultural laborer, its interpretation and propagation in society remains dynamic and ever-changing to the needs of the institution and its people.

Innately, the Morrill Land Grant set aside the means for the University of Illinois—Illinois Industrial University originally—to grow and to educate Illinoisans on agriculture and best labor practices. Outside of Davenport Hall even, we can read: “Industrial education prepares the way for a millennium of labor.” The ever reaches of such an act sought out to “institutionalize  practical  fields  of study, meld them with liberal education, open them to a new class of students, and charge the states with finding the means to accomplish it all” (Geiger 281). The Land Grant opened up publicly-funded institutions of higher education in a plethora of states and transformed the access to education and innovation from then on. From there, we can see how each state and people had their own autonomy to determine what this meant, but for many land-grant universities such as the University of Illinois, this meant hopefully lowering the socioeconomic barrier to access of universities and increasing its growth in order to meet demand—although there was still a long way to go (Henry 2). In this, we can see that President Henry outlines Illinois as the next beacon into the future, but in order to be that, the University necessitates growth and visionaries such as him to guide the University into the next century. Regardless, the principle remains that the Morrill Land Grant’s rationale of preparation for the common man remains but has grown to be far more than that.

By extrapolating the Land Grant’s original idea of education for the masses as a means to better equip citizens to participate in society, we can then understand its criticisms. At the same time of President Henry’s speech, there was backlash by students against the university for failing to push forth critical thought and listen to the qualms of the next generation of change-makers. Students felt simply unprepared, and as though a university education no longer had merit—it was no longer enough to simply educate students on agriculture and industry as originally poised but to equip them with the intellectual and critical thinking to solve whatever problems came toward them.  Thus, the Morrill Land Grant and its effects prove dynamic and open to interpretation. As the student Centennial Convocation speaker Paul Schroeder said, “Let us all work together not so much to liberalize the present order, as to gain our liberation from it” (1968). It is not enough for the students to be educated but for faculty and students alike to pioneer the vision of the future, be it through industry or academia.

Innovation + Space Lab

8/28/20 10:15 pm

During quarantine, I have designated this space as a location to separate myself from my home life and enter my academic and professional life. In order to fully put myself in my working mindset, there are several key elements that make up this space. First and foremost, the object that I believe best represents this space is the post-it on the entryway. I prefer to work in this space because it is relatively secluded from the rest of the house which puts a buffer between me and my family, who will often talk to me or ask favors of me, in order to make sure I can attend meetings and online classes without interruptions. I have taken to placing a post-it note on the wall to indicate to others who are sharing space with me that I cannot be interrupted at the moment. Instead of a door, this room is connected to the rest of my house via an open archway, which I did not initially register as an innovation, but it has proven to be the perfect boundary to mediate between myself and the rest of my household when I am working at home. Unlike a closed door, my family members feel like they are able to enter the space and talk to me, however in combination with the post-it note, they are able to tell when I am working on something that cannot be interrupted. 

One of the key issues during quarantine has been establishing boundaries. This includes boundaries between myself and my family and also boundaries between my workday and my downtime. This area is not particularly well lit during the evening and night time which at first I found an inconvenience, because it made it more frustrating to work late into the night. But over time I’ve started to register the change in daylight as an indication of the end of my workday and been more mindful of setting a clear end time to my workday.  The change in daylight in a way also represents a change in ownership of this space. During the day I use this space, specifically the desktop computer, to attend virtual meetings and do schoolwork, however later at night, my brother uses the desktop computer to play video games and video call with his friends.

Simply speaking, the innovations in the space are uncountable. We could simply be talking about the double-walled glass acting as insulator to the cold outdoors to the Mac desktop computer that communicates to anywhere in the world to the fluorescent lightbulb that brighten the room with a flick of a switch. While the room may seem cluttered and not specifically “modern,” the innovations it relies on are definitely modern. Even looking at something so simple as the curtains that block out light, each function and item of the room could be dissected as having had hundreds to thousands of years of science and thought put into it.




8/31/20 11:00 am

The latter post covered my home-life due to a quick visit back home, but this post will cover my new bedroom/apartment in Champaign. I have since settled in somewhat to Champaign, but the boxes and open luggage on the ground do not clearly illustrate that fact. I have had all the time in the world, and even as I spend the vast majority of the day in my room, I somehow find myself content with its clutter. The fact being that no one ever has to interface with my room except for myself, so I do not feel specifically inclined to make it presentable. Hey, if it works for me, it works, right? I sleep, work, shower, eat, etc. here.

What most annoys me though and why this space is noted alongside my quarantine home is this hole in the wall I have above my toilet. It was here when I moved in, and due to my room still remaining a mess, I have yet to call up maintenance to address it, even though the fact it exists rather bothers me. To be fair, a “hole” is not an object in a traditional sense, but its existence best represents my outlook in life, depending on how you frame it. It could be said that I am immensely lazy for allowing it to continue bother me and haunt my mind (e.g. what if the pipes burst? What if I’m breathing in asbestos? What if a spider comes out?), or it could be said that I do not shy away from adversity and am unhindered by first-world expectations. This is still a world away from the home-life and cleanliness that I observe when I visit my family in Vietnam.

What’s clear in my photos is that I let boxes and luggage pile up in my room. To be fair, I was trying to fold up those boxes, but I could find no adequate space for them. Either way, we can remark on the innovation of the modern microwave and instant pot. The microwave likely came through from research in academia on the effects of different wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation–luckily, do to the Faraday cage of microwaves, we are largely unhindered by the exposure to radiation to cook our food. Likewise, the innovation and popularity of the Instant Pot pressurized cooker is quite recent, and I can recall that it was started by an engineer who invested his life’s savings into its creation. Since then, it has been the beloved household cooker of many meals. Each of these innovations ultimately save time in the kitchen. No longer does one have to wait for dozens of minutes to reheat a frozen meal or for hours to create delicious bone broth. As well, they save space and are efficient somewhat as they can be reused thousands of times.

01 – Lab Reflection + Reading Response

1.) Innovation + Society Lab

I visited both of these locations around noon. The first photo is the ramp between the sidewalk and the street. My neighbors and I use these ramps to help safely and smoothly reach the sidewalk from the street. Wheelchairs, bicycles, wagons, and strollers benefit from these ramps because it creates a bridge for the sidewalk which is higher than the street. The bushes, flowers, and other plants help to make the space pleasant and peaceful. This creates value for people walking by this neighborhood.  These ramps look like they were made out of newer concrete which means this was built recently. I believe that policies were implemented to help people with disabilities independently reach the sidewalk. The ramps help them achieve this goal because wheels have a hard time going through bumpy surfaces. A lot of people interact with this space when they walk their dogs, push their strollers, or pull their wagons. Overall these innovations benefit a lot of people in this neighborhood by improving the transition between the street and sidewalk.

The second photo is the ramp to my garage. It’s meant for vehicles to smoothly enter the building. This building is meant for the storage of vehicles and yard equipment. There’s a ramp that helps the car smoothly reach the sidewalk but there’s a leveling difference between the building and the sidewalk which creates a bump when moving your vehicle into the garage. The end of the sidewalk doesn’t have a ramp that would connect it to the alley. The foundation of the garage looks newer than the sidewalk. This means that the garage is newer than the driveway and sidewalk. Overall the garage fulfills its purpose by providing vehicles protection from weather and storage for tools and other equipment. The interactions I see are usually the cars going into the garage. However, I do see cyclists struggle to get on to the sidewalk from the alley. Adding ramps between the sidewalk and the foundation of the garage would create a smooth transition for the car to enter the garage.

2.) Reading Response + Annotated Bibliography

The idea of the Land Grant is important to President Henry because he knew about the benefits of opening a Land Grant University. The Morill Act indirectly pushed Land Grant Universities to find a way to incorporate mechanical arts (Geiger 307). This act helped to fulfill the industrial and mechanical needs that were demanded by the respective states. According to President Henry, “The complex needs of society have placed new demands upon the University at the advanced levels of education” (“Congressional Record: University of Illinois Centennial” 74). This quote explains that because of the advances in society, the University of Illinois and other Land Grant Universities are obligated to fulfill these needs. The idea of the Land Grant is important to President Henry because he sees the University of Illinois as a place for serving the people.

The Land Grant focused on three intentions placed in the Morrill Act. Wide educational opportunities, comprehensive curricula, and diversification of education services were innovative ideas that Land Grants provided (“Congressional Record: University of Illinois Centennial” 75). Another innovation was its ability to serve the working-class students. According to Roger Geiger, “the institute served Morrell’s industrial classes or, as one Harvadian put it, ‘a class of students who rarely find their way to Cambridge’” (313). Land Grant Universities focused on the education of the industrial and working classes.